Lapis - sodium aluminosilicate and calcium mineral from the group sodalite. Hardness of 6.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2.3-2.9 g/cm3, transparent, silky luster, glass, strong white fluorescence. Another name - lapis lazuli, Lazurik, Bukhara stone, Armenian stone.
Alas, in the great empires of the ancient love of beauty combined with cruelty, and precious stones valued much higher than human life. Our ancestors gave gems preference because they are able to survive more than one generation of people - that's what happened with lapis lazuli, which was truly a favorite stone of Egypt, Sumer, Akkad, Persia, and many other great States, now sunk into oblivion. Thanks knowledges archaeologists, we know that especially loved lapis lazuli in Egypt, where it was called the "son of heaven" and dedicated to Pharaoh as God's representative on Earth of the Sun Ra. Blue stone became a measure of value, they are covered with statues of rulers and gods, bracelets, necklaces and rings are set in gold lapis constantly find in Egyptian tombs. The scale of worship lapis lazuli is not given us to know, because that centuries tomb robbers searched for articles of this mineral in particular - gems depicting scarab, because they believed that this would bring even Scarab thief happiness and longevity add that removed Azure beetles from the heart of the dead, where they invested before burial ...
So the Sumerians, who lived nearby, did not yield to Egyptians love to lapis lazuli - and perhaps surpassed them because lazuli was a symbol of their supreme deity of the sky Inanna, after which wanted to erect a temple in Mesopotamia even completely out of the blue stone temple to our times did not survive, but it is known that the royal regalia, jewelry, clothing, hair, household items and the very walls of the palaces were literally covered with lapis lazuli, which had to send for the expedition to a remote Pamir - because in the Sumer deposits of lapis lazuli, which is born in a highly mountains, has never been ... and for less selfless kingdoms existed Badakhshan mines that are already over 7,000 years BC supplied the ancient world as a welcome gem, from which, according to some researchers have even been made Moses the tablets of the Ten Commandments. The common man had no right to even come close to the mines - it was punishable by death, with the following order of the overseers, and the miners themselves chained to the wall of the shaft, so they did not have the opportunity to steal a piece of the sacred in Badakhshan lapis lazuli, which had the right to own only the Emir.
However, the Badakhshan mine though they were always the most well-known and high quality, but not the only one. In addition to the mines of the Pamir, lapis lazuli mined in China, where the blue balls on the headdresses of mandarins were a sign of power, and in South America, where gold jewelry, silver and lapis lazuli were widely used in the culture of the Indian civilizations. Loved and lapis lazuli in ancient Greece and Rome, where it was cut gems, figurines, small household items, and even produced, rubbed to powder, bright blue paint.
In the Renaissance, lapis lazuli triumphantly regained its former popularity - now out of it began to make major interior products: Headset, vases, table tops, stands a sculpture can be seen all over Europe. Particularly beautiful were mosaics with lapis - blue stone was used in almost every product svezheizobretennoy Florentine mosaic. Until Russia lazuli "got" fully only in the XVIII century, with much of the tradition came from Badakhshan. Huge vases, bowls, lamps, in the technique of Russian mosaic, countertops still adorn the Hermitage and other Russian museums and palaces, the greatest work of lapis lazuli lapis-lazuli were two towers five meters installed in the St. Isaac's Cathedral. In addition, the board made of lapis lazuli sets, snuff boxes, ashtrays, boxes, candle holders, and many other household items wealthy residents of Russia. Often used lapis lazuli and Faberge - it looks very elegant as the petals of the famous "Stone Flower" - semiprecious nezabudok and cornflowers that seem real audience is present "Lazurik" and some of the "Easter eggs".
Medical use of lapis lazuli started long ago - in ancient Egypt from the powder of the stone produced medicines for removing toxins from the body, and in the Middle Ages in the course of the pills were crushed lapis lazuli, which is prescribed by eye diseases. Certainly swallow crushed lapis lazuli is not necessary, but just a regular contemplation of his deep, calming blue is really a beneficial impact on the state of the view. With increased pressure, insomnia, stress, asthma recommended beads of lapis lazuli, and pinned to the abdomen of pregnant women as a brooch, or put in the pocket of a piece of stone to protect it from premature birth and facilitate attacks toxicosis. Overall lapis beneficial effects on the blood, and the metabolism of the bone - so it is used for rheumatism, sciatica, joint pain. Like his "younger brother" sodalite, lapis lazuli is extremely useful for those suffering from diseases of the thyroid gland and the lymphatic system. Bracelet or ring with lapis lazuli improves circulation and helps with diseases of the genitourinary system. Massage with lapis lazuli in lithotherapy used to treat epilepsy.
Energy lapis lazuli is a true spiritual guide for the owner, teaches his mercy and compassion, making a wise and just, and develops the mind and soul. This mascot philosophers, scholars, judges, and engaged in charitable activities. Doctors, especially psychologists and psychotherapists, lapis lazuli is also useful - it helps to feel the pain of others. In addition, lapis lazuli "clean" host from accumulated over the lifetime of negativity, resentment, bad thoughts. While lapis lazuli does not make man in disinterested, and nothing human is alien to him - making the stone and his assistant, you will gradually feel like your existence becomes brighter and more prosperous, because in addition to wisdom lapis attracts more and mutual love and prosperity. In family life, lapis lazuli revives faded feelings, creating a new stage of relations, and a pair of guards from interfering outsiders. As to Jupiter, lapis lazuli, like other blue stones, is held the amulet of power, it makes its owner significant person able to penetrate into the essence of things. Businessmen who are starting a new business, lapis give an unlimited supply of energy, help quickly but competently respond and make good decisions, contribute to the emergence of interesting ideas. Astrologically lapis fits all, and most of all Taurus, Libra, Sagittarius and Capricorn.