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Main » 2013 » April » 11
Amber

Amber (succinite) is organic and is a fossilized resin of coniferous trees. The hardness of 2-2.5 on the Mohs scale, density from 1.08 to 1.3 g/cm3. Color varies widely from almost colorless to black prebladaet golden yellow and reddish coloration of varying intensity.

History dating man with amber has about 9000 years - even in the Neolithic Baltic amber has been the object of desire and commerce, first raw and then in the form of beads, amulets, ritual figures of people and animals ... Actually, a number of peoples amber itself was analogue of the monetary unit. Amber decorated crown of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun, it is mentioned in Homer's famous "Odyssey." In ancient Rome, with its love of glitter decorative and ornamental stone dominated Amber Fashion - merchants specifically went for the amber to the North. Amber grinds figurines, bowls and vessels, furnishings, bas-reliefs and, of course, numerous decorations. Stone ... Read more »
Views: 1102 | Added by: Admin | Date: 11.04.2013 | Comments (1)

Spinel

Spinel - Mineralogical name dinitrogen dialyuminiya magnesium. Hardness of 8.0 on the Mohs scale, density 3.6 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names: Lal shpinar, bale-ruby.

For a long time confused with spinel rubies - this gem at all for a long time did not put in a separate form, calling the general collective word carbuncle with ruby ​​and crimson-pyrope garnet. Can not find mention of the spinel in Pliny, Marboda, Epiphany is no mention of spinel in the Bible or the Koran, there is none in the ancient classical tradition. Separate from ruby ​​spinel began only in IX-X centuries, and then called her Lal. The "new" mineral valued higher pyrope and almandine, but slightly lower than rubies. Spinel and gained popularity in Russia along with amethysts, sapphires and emeralds, and in Europe - for example, a beautiful pink spinel size of a ripe plum belonged to Francis Drake, "Pirates of her Majesty 'scout Queen Elizabeth ... Read more »
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Charoite

Charoite - Russian native stone. In 1949 the mine was first discovered the stone, but then it was kind of coil - these minerals are similar in terms of hardness, density and glass shine. All the more so in the landscape also occur charoite green, black and gold inclusions and serpentine rich in variety - and it rarely happens that kind of stone are very unusual color, found a bright green garnet or pink sapphires. It was only in 1964 Charoite finally assessed as a separate mineral, unique in the world does not exist. However, widespread charoite to disturb the Republic of Sakha-Yakutia limit the quarrying of 100 tonnes per year - is a necessary measure that protects against rapid drying out of the deposit. Statistics calculated that one person on Earth is no more than 0.0016 g charoite. That's why every year Charoite uncontrollably rising in price and becoming more rare. Value of similar size and frame ornaments from, say, malachite or jade below ... Read more »
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Citrine

Citrine - the yellow variety of quartz. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3, shiny glass, completely transparent. Other names: golden topaz, western topaz, Spanish topaz, false topaz, Bohemian topaz, Madeira.

First he was sincerely believed topaz - for its bright lemon-yellow or light orange shade so resembled the color of one of the varieties of this mineral, known since ancient times! And despite the fact that the jewelry with citrine in ancient Rome and Greece were scientists and philosophers as talismans to ensure eloquence and recognition, self-titled yellow quartz had. Only in the mid-18 th century researcher Valerius isolated golden variety of quartz as a species - and it was not easy, as topaz and citrine often make a difference in appearance, and the difference lies only in hardness, density and weight, which have a large size topaz. Here was born the term "Madeira citrine" - so the most rare and b ... Read more »
Views: 1552 | Added by: Admin | Date: 11.04.2013 | Comments (4)

Zircon

Zircon - zirconium silicate. The hardness of 7.0-8.0 on the Mohs scale, density 3,9-4,7 t/sm3, shiny diamond. Other names - Hyacinth, yakint, steel, hyacinth, jargon, slang Ceylon.

Zircon - stone, which at first glance, everything is known to all, because it is found in jewelry with great frequency. With a comprehensive range of colors (there are zircons and colorless, and green, and red, and golden yellow, and blue, and even black) and the ability to change color from brown to blue, yellow or transparent when heated, Zircon is often used as a satellite of the other precious stones, and is used as an imitation of the more expensive gems such as emeralds or rubies. There was even a misconception that the zircon is not a gem, and cultured crystals, almost a piece of colored glass, when in fact the zircons are known to mankind since ancient times, and the probability of finding artificial zircon is extremely low - this mineral ... Read more »
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Chrysoprase

Chrysoprase - the most valuable variety of chalcedony, contains nickel compounds. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3, translucent, shiny glass. Other names: emerald.

If you choose a gem that is most appropriate to be the "apple" that comes to mind chrysoprase - a translucent mineral with subtle green apple, grassy or onion shades. His color is very gentle, non-intrusive, as if touched by the drops of morning dew, and at the same time, dense and "tasty": it is you want to watch and watch without getting tired. And even the very nature of his "live" - ​​for example, after lying for a long time under the scorching sun, chrysoprase may fade a bit, but quickly recovered, is only to hold it a couple of days in water or moist soil.

It is known from ancient times - the chrysoprase, as in other chalcedony, cameos and intaglios carved with images of mythological scenes, portraits ... Read more »
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Jasper

Jasper - siliceous, sedimentary or metamorphic sedimentary rock with various inclusions. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3, shiny silky glass. Other names: jasper agate, agate meat, bloody jasper, lapis Swiss, German Lapis, heliotrope, tiger stone, prase, basanite, and the jasper, the plasma.

Jasper - a true friend of man, with the experience, not much is not enough, a hundred thousand years. Jade deposits are not always hidden in the interior of the mountains - it often comes to the surface in the form of boulders and rocks, which will use it to create weapons - that was the first way to use this gem, but soon enough, with the emergence of life in metal ores, jasper gradually moved into the category of decorative materials. From it, the benefit is met in many, cut figures of gods and magic press in Egypt, produced gems and amulets for the seriously ill in Rome, laying in bed births in Greece ... j ... Read more »
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Chrysolite

Peridot - jewelry variety of the mineral olivine, iron and magnesium orthosilicate. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 3.3 g/cm3, transparent, shiny glass. Other names: Peridot, Peridot, Hawaii, krazelit.

This stone - one of the oldest minerals known to mankind. Not surprisingly named him there is some confusion inherent gems with such a long history. The most ancient is precisely the word "beryl", in the literal sense - the "golden stone" it is found in texts from the III century BC There is no doubt that the "golden stone" chrysolite was due to its beautiful golden-green color, reminiscent of the young spring grass, the ripening grain field. "Nickname" chrysolite - "evening emerald": in artificial light green color it becomes deeper and juicier, and the yellow tint disappears. Many believe that chrysotile has two equal synonym - olivine and peridot. On the other hand, sometimes called olivine darker bot ... Read more »
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Chrysoberyl

Chrysoberyl - aluminum oxide and beryllium, greenish-yellow, rarely colorless mineral. Hardness of 8.5 on the Mohs scale, density 3.5-3.8 g/cm3, shiny glass. Other names: tsimofan, cat's eye, Vaidurya (obsolete).

The name chrysoberyl is received for a golden yellow color (from the Greek. «Chrisos» - «Gold"). This beautiful and rare translucent jewel is one of those that are well known to people, the more popular of his rarest varieties: alexandrite and cat's eye (tsimofan). Already 4000 years ago found the first literary mention of chrysoberyl in the ancient Indian treatise on medicine "Rasaraja Tarangini ', which described its three varieties: the" color of bamboo leaf "(ordinary chrysoberyl)," a brilliant and iridescent, like a peacock's eye "(Alexander) and" Brilliant as cat's eye "(tsimofan or cat's eye).

This would seem like nothing on earth, a special stone alexandrite - merely a form of c ... Read more »
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Chalcedony

Chalcedony is a variety of quartz, which is a type of silica. Chemical composition - content SiO2 - 90-99% observed impurities Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, H2O (in the pores of the unit). Crystals - translucent. Glitter - glass. Hardness - 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density - 2.6 g/cm3.

Chalcedony - an unusual stone, because this name chalcedony understand a group of fibrous opaque minerals, differentiated by color and nature of the picture, but the same hardness, mineralogical structure and waxy luster. This orange chalcedony called cornelian, chalcedony and red - carnelian, chalcedony and blue - sapphirine, and the most expensive of chalcedony bright green chrysoprase, and brownish-red sardonyx, and light yellow waxy chalcedony tseregat ... Dark green chalcedony with red spots and stripes called heliotrope, layered chalcedony - agate, chalcedony tape - onyx ... All the colors of the spectrum, all kinds of colors of gems fou ... Read more »
Views: 1067 | Added by: Admin | Date: 11.04.2013 | Comments (0)

Fluorite

Fluorite - fluorspar, calcium fluoride. Hardness of 4.0 on the Mohs school, density 3.1 g/cm3, shiny glass, perfect cleavage. Other names: ore flower, blue John, false ruby, emerald, false, false sapphire, topaz, false, false amethyst derbishirsky stone Litos-lazulite.

Fluorite in the old days was a consummate party semiprecious views. The color scheme it covers all the colors of the rainbow and more, and it is both transparent and turbid as monochrome and with mottled or striped pattern in different shades. Not surprisingly, the dark-green variety of fluorite has long been sold under the guise of emerald, red, crimson and pink - as rubies, yellow and orange - as topaz, blue and purple instead of sapphire, violet and purple - as amethysts. Guess what is so unlike an external crystal is essentially the same mineral that can only specialist - fluorite so diverse, keeping the richness of colors is one of the dominant place am ... Read more »
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Tourmaline

Tourmaline - purple varieties transparent or translucent quartz. The hardness of 7.0-7.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2,9-3,26 g/cm3, glitter glass, expressed plehroizm. Old name - Shirley. Brand names of varieties - Brazilian sapphire, ruby ​​Brazilian, Brazilian emerald.

Tourmalines appeared in Europe recently - the first samples were brought from Ceylon in 1703, sailors returning from the Indian colonies. There is no doubt that India tourmalines used since ancient times, especially since there is this kind of minerals is one of the most valuable. Dutch colonists, I must say, at first did not find tourmaline jewelry application - rough Tourmaline crystals are taken out of the ashes of their pipes of tobacco. Maybe it was because the tourmaline has a wonderful property electrify when heated - even its name to the language of the island of Sri Lanka, "turamali" means "attracting the ashes." Tourmalines, especially red and ... Read more »
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Topaz

Topaz - aluminum fluorosilicate. Hardness of 8.0 on the Mohs scale, density 3.5 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names - Siberian diamonds (blue and white topaz), Saxon beryl (green topaz), Brazilian Ruby (red Brazilian topaz) killikransky diamond (colorless topaz Australian) Diamond mogoksky (colorless topaz Burmese), Physalia, Pickney.

The origin of the name of this multi-faceted stone is shrouded in mystery - according to one version, it was named after a desert island in the Red Sea Topazios where he claimed to have found for the first time according to legend, these lands have always been shrouded in a mystical mist, and only the most daring adventurers could penetrate the shimmering haze and get a shiny precious award. Another option - the name comes from the Greek word «topazos», which means "search." The third version - which is derived from sankritskogo word "tapas", which means "fire, heat, passion." Who is rig ... Read more »
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Tanzanite

Another name for the mineral - blue zoisite. Blue and purple colors are due to impurity ions of chromium and vanadium. Crystals - transparent. Glitter - glass. Hardness - 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density - 3.1-3.5 g/cm3, perfect cleavage.

Opening tanzanite was as random and spontaneous, as a tropical downpour - in 1967, the African Masai herdsmen found at the foot of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania burnt glade - the fire along with grass and trees eaten topsoil, exposing transparent stones violet-purple. One of the warriors of the tribe brought a stone weighing 10 carats (2 kg) in the office Manuelya De Souza involved in the supply of rubies. First discovery in general took over a piece of glass, then felt the sapphire ... However, after careful examination of experts agreed on what they see in front of a brand new gem variety of zoisite - another African gem, hardly used in jewelry.

"Blue zoisite ... Read more »
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Talkhlorit

Talkohlorit - soft ancient (Proterozoic) slate, consisting of carbonates - calcite CaCO3, magnesite MgCO3, dolomite CaMg (CO3) 2 and layered hydro - talc Mg3 (Si4O10) (OH) 2 and a much more complex composition of chlorite. The melting point of over 1600 ° C. Hardness of 2.3 on the Mohs scale, density 2,6-3,3 g/cm3.

Talkhlorit produced mainly in Finland, which is the national stone, such as semi-precious symbol of the state, as malachite in Russia and pearls in Japan. His real name - vezolukivi, Tulikivi same - "nickname", meaning "fiery stone." He did a lot of names - in the language it is called mineralogy talkohlorit, talkomagnezit taklkokarbonat or, in the old days in Europe it is called soapstone, soapstone and gilshteinom, speksheytom or soapstone. Soapstone known in ancient Egypt, India and Sumer in a few thousand years before our era - but at the time it was mined in small quantities and make him a magical amulets ... Read more »
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Sodalite

Among blue and blue sodalite stones stands apart - a rare and mysterious gemstone. Sodalite dark history - Europe sodalite first became known in the last few centuries, and was first described in the literature of the stone was in 1811 no Pliny, Herodotus of sodalite or do not mention it, and not in the medieval "lapidary" - and this in spite of that it was known to the ancient Incas in South America, which he faced the walls and floors of houses cut out of his jewelry and sculpture, were removed from the sodalite mineral powder blue paint ultramarine. For some reason, the Spanish conquerors passed sodalite - a stone that went only good, because otherwise the already not great its natural resources to date at all would be depleted. Now sodalite mined in areas of volcanic rocks, such as on the Kola Peninsula, in Russia, in the area of ​​Mount Vesuvius in Italy, and in the mountains in Portugal, Germany, Romania, India, Norway, Canada, USA, Brazil.< ... Read more »
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Carnelian

Carnelian - a variety of chalcedony staple structure. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density - 2.6 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names of the stone and its variants: smazen, kadnos, carnelian, sarder, linkury.

Cornelian pebbles, so beloved by Voloshin, has since been considered a symbol of the true precious Silver Age. But before carnelian was rated luminaries of Russian literature - so, AS Pushkin had two carnelian ring. Their fate is confused - one on which was carved three winged Cupid, wore poet since childhood, but once lost his wife Mary Decembrist Rayevsky Volkonskaya carnelian with her was in Siberian exile, and then got in the Pushkin Museum in St. Petersburg. Second, given the Countess Vorontsova Pushkin wore to death and left his friend, the poet Zhukovsky Zhukovsky of decoration passed to his son, then - to the writer Turgenev, who bequeathed it to Leo Tolstoy and then send a "worthy Russia ... Read more »
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Selenite

Selenium - a translucent long staple variety of gypsum, calcium sulphate water. Hardness of 2.0 on the Mohs scale, a density of 2.3 g/cm3, a silky luster, pearl. Contains inclusions of sand, clay, hematite, sulfur and organic matter. Other names: dzhandarakand, moonstone.

Selenite soft not only on the physical qualities - his character, if I may say so on the gem, however mild and even moderate. It is extremely common, inexpensive, easy to process, and therefore known to many - but most are automatically classified it as "minor" ornamental minerals, whereas in fact originally selenite was the fourth largest stone Urals. By the way, by the middle of XX century in the Urals workshops annually produces up to 400,000 elephants, and that's not counting selenitovyh boxes, toilet sets, money boxes, figurines in our country selenite literally went to every house.

But the history of this mineral did not beg ... Read more »
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Sardonyx

Sardonyx - a kind of agate, which is characterized by alternating red-brown, brown-brown, white and bluish streaks. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5-2.6 g/cm3, silky luster, glass. Other names: agate onyx, carnelian onyx, agate belt.

Sardonyx (Greek onyx - nail and sard - Sardis, the capital of the kingdom of Lydia) combines the best qualities of chalcedony family: strips of agate and onyx, carnelian warm light colors and dark sard, bluish tone sapphirine. The stone people just could not pass by, and he was known and respected in ancient Egypt: the Cleopatra in the I century BC was the favorite vessel of sardonyx and black antimony powder, which she let down ever. But in contrast to the same strip at sardonyx agate thicker, straighter layers shades range from very dark brown, brown, a brown, red-brown and orange-red to pink and white with a blue tint. Often contrasting layers alternate. Sardonyx is opaque, bu ... Read more »
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Sapphire

Sapphire - a variety of corundum gemstone group I, second in hardness after diamond. Hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale, density 4.0 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Another name - ruby, sapphire azure, blue alexandrite.

Isstari sapphires are welcome guests and royal regalia, and the decorations of the wealthiest aristocrats. Especially popular were transparent sapphire deep cornflower blue - they were called "royal", is considered a symbol of justice, wisdom, and supreme power. Blue stones known in ancient Egypt, where the priests wore on his chest sapphire amulets, and a crown adorned Cleopatra huge sapphire, in ancient Rome, where sapphires were strewn, and clothes, and jewelry, and in Greece, where Alexander the Great wore a sapphire ring. Print the biblical King Solomon was made according to tradition was of sapphire, in Revelation sapphire is the penultimate step leading to the heavenly Jerusalem, a sapphire among othe ... Read more »
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Ruby

Ruby - transparent chromium variety of corundum. Gem I order, second in hardness after diamond. Hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale, density 4.0 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names: scarlet ruby, emerald, red corundum.

The first information about the ruby ​​is found in the ancient Indian tradition, dating from the VI century BC In the scriptures it is called the "king of gems", "leader of precious stones" - it was thought that the owner of the ruby ​​guarantee complete safety, even among enemies. Methods of rubies were truly exotic - in Burma rubies sewn just under the skin, after which the stone allegedly gave invulnerability in battle by the sword, the sword and the spear. Raji were rubies on clothing and hats, kept loose in the storerooms, encrusted their thrones palace utensils, furniture, was inserted into the eye socket of statues of the gods of war. Rubin was one of the most expensive gems along with emeralds and ... Read more »
Views: 388 | Added by: Admin | Date: 11.04.2013 | Comments (2)

Rose Quartz

Rose quartz - a kind of opaque white quartz with pink, mixed with titanium. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3, shiny glass, crystal translucent or transparent.

Rose quartz - a modest mineral, not eager to stand out from the rest, but its obvious advantage for a long time made him one of the most famous consumer stones. First of rose quartz beads have been found in ancient Mesopotamia in 7000 BC - Even then it made of women's jewelry. Loved the rose quartz in the East - where he was called "the stone of the heart", believing that her soft color stone fills the heart with love contemplating his person. And used it for cosmetic purposes - in ancient Egypt and ancient Rome quartz pounded into a powder and added to a variety of creams and ointments that was to keep a smooth, youthful skin and prevent wrinkles. In those days, people believed that this stone is sent down a god of love Eros (Cupid) to pass th ... Read more »
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Rhodonite

Rhodonite - a mineral subclass chain silicates, it includes a large percentage of manganese. Hardness - 5.5-6.5 on the Mohs scale, density of 3.6 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names: Orlets, tank, ruby ​​spar, Fowler.

Rhodonite known since the Byzantine Empire, but for a long time he was not in favor - and not because of "face did not come out," but because of the almost complete absence of a stockpile. However, in ancient India, this semi-precious midst of boundless wealth, rhodonite knew long ago - where he was referred to as "divine stone", awakens in man the very best love in the hearts of villagers and revealing dormant for the time talents. A poetic name "Rodon" received the stone already in the XIX century, from the Greek word «rhodon» - Rose, for his gentle, shy paint really reminds shade petals queen of flowers. In Russia, a rhodonite first called by another name - rhodonite-orlets, eagle stone was believ ... Read more »
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Rauchtopaz

Rauchtopaz - crystalline variety of quartz. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5-2.8 g/cm3, transparent, shiny glass, distinct plehroizm. Other names: smoky quartz, Smolyak, talyanchik, Roma, Scottish topaz, smoky crystal kerngorm, crystal-smazen.

The sacred stone of India and Tibet, where it is called the "stone of the Buddha", rauchtopaz always appreciated in these deeply religious and mysterious land above rock crystal - thanks to him the Eastern sages were in trance state or acquire a "nirvana", which means a complete purification of consciousness and a sense of absolute bliss. Smoky quartz has been a frequent member of meditation and "focus of force" regardless stone contemplation and rest, frees the body of toxins and negativity. And the myths featured magic bowl, carved from a single piece rauchtopas - drinking water poured into it, it was possible to cure any disease.

Interestin ... Read more »
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Pyrite

Pyrite - iron sulfide, one of the most common minerals on Earth. The hardness of 6-6.5 on the Mohs scale, density of 4,9-5,2 g/cm3, melting point of 1188 ° C. Metallic luster. Insoluble in water.

Name destructive elements that can both save lives and take it easy - the fire, the stone is called pyrite - from the Greek "Piros" fire. Pyrite - the first match of man, it is thanks to him that the fireplace in medieval castles and puffing tube gallant soldier of Hans Christian Andersen's still one name pyrite - Flint. With the force of impact on a small, well-kept hand, a piece of pyrite kresalom steel, carved a shower of sparks that ignited the dry moss fibers, linen or cotton - tinder. As Flint people know pyrite from the early Middle Ages, when the German miners noticed an unusual effect - with the impact of a steel pickaxe developed by the rock, pyrite crumbles and forms a set of red and yellow sparks. Interestingly, the stee ... Read more »
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Peridot

Mohs scale of hardness for its value is 6.5 - 7.0. Density - 3.3 g/cm3.

Peridot is also known as olivine. Name of the stone peridot comes from the Greek word peridona - giving abundance. Other names of the mineral and its varieties: forsterite, Kashmir peridot, olivine. There are many varieties of it: olive-green, yellow-green, brownish-green, but the most valuable color - brilliant lime green. Yellow varieties ebbs often referred to as chrysolite, but chemically they are identical. Peridot is usually lighter in color than the emerald and has a denser color than the diamond.

Peridot is found in Alexandria (Egypt), and the most eastern mines for its production is on an island Zebargad, about 50 miles off the coast of Egypt in the Red Sea. In fact Zebargad - is the Arabic name for peridot.

The largest reserves of gem-quality peridot is in one of the mountains of stem reserves ... Read more »
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Ofiokaltsit

Green marble or ofiokaltsit - limestone veined serpentinite. Mineralogical Class: rock, fine-grained marble serpentizirovanny. Crystals - opaque. Glitter - silky glass. The hardness of 5.0-6.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3.

Ofiokaltsit, translucent green mineral, which in ancient times was considered a kind of green marble, is far superior to the latter in terms of hardness, and even a fall will not bring him harm. This is an interesting semi-precious gem from a marble base and precious inclusions Ophites - iridescent, like opal, precious species notorious in Russia serpentine stone. If natural serpentine like snake skin, then pale green or yellow-green blooms ofiokaltsita surface mesh or striped pattern of diverging in different directions olive, swamp or brownish streaks that resemble small snakes crawling in the spring grass - no wonder the word "ophite" in Greek means "serpent."

Ofiok ... Read more »
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Opal

Opal - amorphous variety of quartz with variable water content (6-10%). The hardness of 6.0-6.5 on the Mohs scale, density 1.9-2.5 g/cm3, fragile, shiny greasy.

Other names of the mineral and its varieties: the eye of the world, gidrofan, opal-Mutter, harlequin, Vidra, Hyalite, pearl opal cacholong, Müller glass dzhirasol, tseazit, firestone.

Unique coloring opal, on whose surface is continuously play, then flashing, then disappearing, colorful patches of all colors, due to its unusual structure: as a part of the stone a lot of water, and in fact is a kind of gel inside which move tiny balls - rock particles. It is this constant movement of the eye and gives flowery modulations that occur in this case, in the literal sense of the word inside the stone. All types of opal over 130, and opalescence - specific diamond play of light - and rainbow iridescence fully differ only in some of them, called "precio ... Read more »
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Onyx

Onyx - a variety of agate, chalcedony variously zonal education, where the layers are distributed plane-parallel to each other. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5-2.8 g/cm3, shiny glass. Other names of the mineral and its varieties: jam Nogat, sardonyx, carnelian, onyx marble, ribbon agate, eldzhazo.

Today, we meet often in the form of onyx pretty inexpensive trinkets - animal figures, stands for pens, business card holders, ashtrays, candleholders, and other art objects, it is affordable to almost everyone. Therefore, it seems sometimes that this stone - one of those "average", which is absolutely not true. In fact, Onyx - this thing is "double down" on the one hand, it serves as material for handicrafts, the other - to create a costly vase, mantels, countertops and wall tiles. Designers onyx especially loved for their unique qualities - this mineral has excellent light transmission capacity, and to deal with it s ... Read more »
Views: 363 | Added by: Admin | Date: 11.04.2013 | Comments (0)

Obsidian

Obsidian - volcanic glass wool rock. Formed by the solidification of acidic viscous lava. Hardness of 6.5 on the Mohs scale, a density of 2.3 g/cm3, a silky luster, glass. Other names: obsidan, resin stone, royal agate stone bottle, mountain tree, Iceland agate, Wasser-beryl, mountain Jet, persian, snow obsidian, Apache tears, Tokay luxury sapphires, muslin stone, jade Montana.

History obsidian has at least 9000 years - but it is possible that our ancestors knew him before that, because to get a splinter of obsidian, dig it out of the lava, it was pretty easy. Already during the Paleolithic obsidian manufacture axes, spears and knives. Later, with the development of a culture of stone, obsidian became known around the world, but its current name comes from ancient Rome, the legislator Gemstone fashion antiquity - a stone was named after the Roman Obsidiusa, which was first presented to the emperor mineral found them in Nor ... Read more »
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Jade

Jade - mineral of the tremolite-actinolite isomorphous series of the amphibole group, calcium silicate, magnesium and iron. Conditionally divided into tremolite-nephrite (lighter) and actinolite-Jade (green shades). The hardness of 6.0-6.5 on the Mohs scale, density 3.0 g/cm3, silky shine, wax. Other names of the mineral and its variants: a kidney stone, Canadian jade, Diana Yu, Poonam, hash, jasper.

Jade - one of the most revered in the East, the stones, and had possession of the other local kings expensive than some cities. Which just did not go about it - worker, believed that it was taken from him the throne of the Buddha in the celestial palace, and that this gem will grant immortality and ensures rebirth after death. So often, pieces of jade were put in the mouth of the deceased - to do so, for example, in Mexico, in addition Maya adorned graves of famous dead jade mosaic on the fingers wore jade rings, put on your face ... Read more »
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Morion

Black or dark brown quartz, silicon dioxide (silica), opaque. Hardness on the Mohs scale - 7.0 -2.6 g/cm3 density, luster glass. Other names: black quartz.

Morion - a black quartz, which used to be called black rock crystal, as well as a variety of smoky quartz. Such a rare color in minerals morion acquired by radioactive radiation, which is subjected in the host rock, such as granite. Experts disagree as to the origin of the name "Morion" some believe that it comes from the Greek marrosys - «gloomy" or morysso - «Black», others - that the Latin mormorion - «The Dark Crystal." In Europe, this mineral is also called morion, in the U.S. its name - smoky (smokey) quartz - smoky quartz, which is not quite true. The Urals, where Morion always accompanies topaz, beryl and amethyst, rock nicknamed "Smolyak" and "Gypsy" for the characteristic shape of the fracture and its luster.

Morion crystals, similar to ... Read more »
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Malachite

Malachite - water carbonate of copper. The hardness of 3.5-4.0 on the Mohs scale, density 4.0 g/cm3, silky luster, glass. Other names: copper greens, peacock stone, satin ore murrin.

Ironically, malachite appeared at all in Russia - his first steps on the planet were made in ancient times, when people have the Neolithic it was considered not a decorative material, and hand tools: from powdered malachite, mixed with soda, azurite, acacia sap and other natural binders, primarily produced bright green and blue paint. She summed Egyptians eyes, stained glass, painted ritual objects and walls of the brightness of these dyes, unfading after many centuries, is still legendary. However, although the oldest crafts malachite 10,500 years, initially this was not considered a precious stone - in addition to colors, with it also began to mine the valuable copper ore and malachite sparing evaporated to get a little more expensive coppe ... Read more »
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Lapis lazuli

Lapis - sodium aluminosilicate and calcium mineral from the group sodalite. Hardness of 6.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2.3-2.9 g/cm3, transparent, silky luster, glass, strong white fluorescence. Another name - lapis lazuli, Lazurik, Bukhara stone, Armenian stone.

Alas, in the great empires of the ancient love of beauty combined with cruelty, and precious stones valued much higher than human life. Our ancestors gave gems preference because they are able to survive more than one generation of people - that's what happened with lapis lazuli, which was truly a favorite stone of Egypt, Sumer, Akkad, Persia, and many other great States, now sunk into oblivion. Thanks knowledges archaeologists, we know that especially loved lapis lazuli in Egypt, where it was called the "son of heaven" and dedicated to Pharaoh as God's representative on Earth of the Sun Ra. Blue stone became a measure of value, they are covered with statues o ... Read more »
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Labrador

Labrador - mineral from the group of calc-sodic feldspar. Glitter - from matt to glass. The hardness of 6.0-6.5 on the Mohs scale. Density of 2.7 g/cm3. Other names: black moonstone, bulls eye, spectrolite, Cariati.

Right or wrong were old traditions and occult scientists, we do not know. But just look at the Labrador, to feel how it differs from other gems. Unusual property bull's eye - irisation, or the ability to overflow from different angles in different colors - in nature minerals are rare, and have never seen so vividly and clearly in the case of a Labrador is a quality even given a special name - labradorizatsiey. Basic color Labrador, usually gray, black or brown-yellow, but on the surface of the stone, he pours cold green, blue, blue and violet shades, then flaring up like a fire, then dissolving in opaque black sapphire haze gleams - no wonder it in India peacock stone called a resemblance to a colorful peacock ... Read more »
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Flint

There opal-chalcedony-quartz and chalcedony varieties of flint. Coloration of the mineral can be white, light brown and dark brown (almost black) with different shades. Glitter - glass. The hardness of the mineral is 7.0 on the Mohs scale, with a density of 2.6 g/cm3. The place of production of flint scattered around the world and are one of the most common mineral deposits.

The name "Flint" is derived from the Latin word «cremare», which means "to burn", because in addition to its durability, this mineral is used for carving sparks and fire-lighting.

The shape of the stones is very diverse. There are round, finger, plate and other shape instances. Interestingly, the flint appears in nature as pearls around some pebbles or sand. This black pearl often has a build-up, holes and voids filled with small crystals of quartz.

Silicon is the main consumer of the abrasive production a ... Read more »
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Coral

Coral - a gem of biogenic origin, hard calcareous skeleton polyps living in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Caribbean and the Red and other warm seas. The hardness of 3.5-4.0 on the Mohs scale, density 1.3-2.6 g/cm3, shiny satin. Color - red, pink, blue, white, black. Other names: bead, dragon.

Corals - this ancient legend come to life, because in fact they - skeletons of living creatures, the coral polyps that inhabit giant columns, and after their death remain colorful thicket of "sea of ​​flowers" - coral. Clusters of coral reefs are called - especially famous Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia, which stretches more than 2,000 meters. There are both coastal and barrier reefs, located in shallow water next to the "mainland", and coral atolls and "banks" that are in the open sea. Especially beautiful is the atolls - in the blue water suddenly appear the outlines of a snow-white coral rings, inside which is a la ... Read more »
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Clinochlore

Clinochlore - mineral of the chlorite group, silicate complex composition. The hardness of 2.0-2.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6-3.0 g/cm3, perfect cleavage. Glitter - glass, pearl at the break. Other names - clinochlore, Serafini, Sheridan leyhtenbergit, Kochubei.

Clinochlore - an extremely rare mineral that was first described in 1888 by the famous mineralogist NI Koksharov in his multi-volume work, "Materials for Mineralogy of Russia." Clinochlore unique deposit is near Lake Baikal in Siberia. Gem got its name from the Greek word "klinos", which means "bow" and "chloros" - "green." At first, he did not receive wide distribution in the jewelry business and was in demand by collectors primarily minerals - and business is up to the early 20th century, was very popular among high society in Russia. But gradually the usual deposit and "fashionable" gems - malachite, emerald, demantoid and green tourmaline - exhausted by ... Read more »
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Cacholong

Cacholong - of porcelain opaque mixture of fine-grained chalcedony and common opal white. Other names: beautiful stone, Kalmyk agate, pearl agate, petrified milk sacred cows. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.1 g/cm3. Glitter - pearl, glass.

Name of the stone comes from the Turkish word "Cage" (river) and "Ha" (stone). Cacholong was known in ancient Egypt, where he dedicated the bull-god Apis, who represented the forces of fertility, abundance, wealth and health. Did not escape the attention white opal and Romans, who used the stone to build vessels, sculptures, wall and female ornaments, the benefit of old stocks cacholong significantly superior today. Mongolia has identified cacholong with lotus - the most sacred flower of Buddhism, the symbol of purity and innocence. In Russia and Europe 18-19 cc. cacholong was a popular material for vases, cups, bas-reliefs, table sets and figurines, home decorating ... Read more »
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Emerald

Emerald - transparent variety of beryl, color is due to the presence of chromium (Cr). The hardness of 7.5-8 on the Mohs scale, density 2,61-2,67 g/cm3, glitter glass. Color from dark green to light grass.

The exact date of the "birth" of emerald is unknown, but this beautiful dark-green with a tinge of blue gem never went out of fashion, and in the history of ancient civilizations, we find mention of emeralds. The Bible Emerald - one of the twelve breastplate stones of the Jewish high priest. In Muslim legends paradise - beautiful garden, studded with emeralds. Stone was popular in ancient Egypt that housed the earliest emerald mines - the Egyptians believed that the green color symbolizes his eternal youth and eternal life, and the famous Cleopatra emerald-encrusted furniture and even doors unizyvala emerald rings on her fingers, one of which, the color grape leaf, read his loving mascot. Romans and Greeks were very fond ... Read more »
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Serpentine

Coil - a group of minerals of the same composition but different symmetry. Includes several mineral species: antigorite (Mg, Fe2 +) 3Si2O5 (OH) 4 chrysotile (klinohrizotil, ortohrizotil, parachrysotile) Mg3Si2O5 (OH) 4 lizardite Mg3Si2O5 (OH) 4. Crystals - opaque. Glitter - silky glass. Hardness on the Mohs scale, 2.0-3.0, density - 2.6 g/cm3.

Serpentine or serpentine (from the Latin word "serpens" - snake) - extremely popular stone: sometimes it forms a whole mountain. Serpentine stone was used by the Olmecs in Central America long before the arrival of Columbus - used to manufacture jewelry and mosaic. In Europe, it began to be used about 400 years ago, and was particularly active treatment coil in Germany - of which did apothecary vessels, baubles, toilet and desk sets. In European countries, where the church was separated from the state, a legend that Adam ate the forbidden fruit, choked and spat it out, and the appl ... Read more »
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Pearls - a mineral of organic origin, formed by the postponement of mineral matter around the foreign body in the mantle cavity of marine and freshwater molluscs. The hardness of 2.5-4.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2.7 g/cm3.

The unusual pearls, above all, is huge compared to other precious stones, the rate of formation. If a diamond or malachite consider their age since the dinosaurs, and in a piece of amber, scientists are finding ancient insects, the pearls appear quickly, within a few decades. This is due to the fact that pearls - an organic product that results from penetration of a conch shell external stimulus (sand or parasitic worms). Sink has no other means of defense, in addition to creating layers of nacre around the aggressor. The purpose of shellfish - immobilize the attacker, depriving it of the possibility of harm the soft tissue inside the shell. And hardly clam understands what a gem a sealed original cause anxiety in the future will be th ... Read more »
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Pomegranate


Grenades - silicate mineral group class. Can be any color except blue. Hardness - 6.5-7.5 on the Mohs scale. Density 3,4-4,3 g/sm3.Prozrachny or nearly transparent, shiny glass or resinous

Garnet - a stone of passion, though a fire hardened human heart - was loved and respected, not only lords of medieval Europe, who wore it in rings and adorned their armor, in order to protect the march of the poison, injury and loss of blood. In Ancient Egypt, grenades were inserted into the eye socket of statues of the gods, and in the ancient world, emerald, garnet as called in the old days was the mascot of pregnant women and was designed to provide favorable resolution of the burden - they wore necklaces and cut them cameos. In Persia, pomegranate is a symbol of power - it cut out silhouettes padishahs. According to biblical legend, during the flood Noah was a huge lamp red garne ... Read more »
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Rhinestone

Rhinestone - a colorless transparent quartz, silica. Other names: crystal, diamond Arabic, Bohemian diamond. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass.

Rock crystal - one of the most famous and popular in the world of gems. The things out of him did not do: and the dishes, and jewelry, and magical tools and fixtures ... Along with pearl and amber rhinestone was one of the favorite mascots past: most often from him made vessels and cups, for example, two crystal goblet was the emperor Nero, from a crystal dish drink the ambrosia of Greek gods of Olympus. Roman aristocrats chilled hands crystal balls or put her well as to lower the temperature of crystal pieces drink wine. The very name, coined by the ancient Greek scientist and physician Theophrastus, is derived from the word "kristallos" - ice. Like other famous scholars of antiquity - Pliny, Plutarch, Aristotle - he believed that the ... Read more »
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Ocellar quartz


Ocellar feldspar - quartz mineral from the group. Formed when silica in the form of fibrous and dense masses includes a massive light-colored fibrous material. Variety: Cat's Eye (includes asbestos fibers or epidote), falcon or hawk eye (includes fibers rhodusite and crocidolite), tiger eye (includes crocidolite). Silky luster, hardness 7-8 on the Mohs scale.

Ocellar quartz or spar - one of the most unusual species of the well-known quartz differ, however, from the traditional amethyst or citrine as day from night. This opaque iridescent stones, the depths of which shines after cutting vertical "pupil." Distinguish them by color - Tiger's Eye has a striped yellow-brown coloring, like a falcon's eye galleries skin has a bluish-gray and blue shades of the cat's eye's light, it is green, greenish-yellow, honey tones, really resembling cat's eyes. When heated, tiger's eye becomes brown cherry color - these ... Read more »
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Hyacinth

Hyacinth - transparent, manganese jewelry jargon. Hardness of 7.5 on the Mohs scale, shiny glass, diamond.

Other Name: Hyacinth, yakint, jargon, hyacinth blue topaz, peradol.

Traditional colors of hyacinth-plants - blue, blue, and purple is the most common color of hyacinth-stone - brown, orange, red and pink. The blue zircon, hyacinth, though found in nature, but it is extremely rare, and the color is usually produced by baking brown hyacinths. The secret? In the error is not clear from the undertaken ancient authors, who believed that "Hyacinth" similar in color: as Pliny calls it a light purple. Clearly, for Hyacinth took a different gem, perhaps, sapphire, quartz and topaz, and then it turned out error, but elegant name was not in vain - they were designated red zircons, possibly similar to the color of clotted blood ...

Popularity hyacinth in all ages was huge, conside ... Read more »
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Hematite

Hematite - a mineral, iron oxide. The hardness of 5.0-6.0 on the Mohs scale, density 5.3 g/cm3, shiny metallic or semimetallic. Other names - bloodstone, hematite, iron kidney, red iron oxide, red glass head.

The name hematite is derived from the Greek word "hemo" meaning blood - literally translated as "Bloodstone." Surprising property of hematite - though the mineral has a metallic luster with iridescent dark-gray color, but it is worth pound piece of stone, and the powder is brown-red, like clotted blood. Even if you wash the stone with water, it turns pink, as if it drop fell a drop of blood - and these qualities have not been for the ancient people undetected. Hematite immediately acquired a special status - it announced a magic talisman, a symbol of the gods of war and victory, as well as rock occultists and magicians.

Stone known to man for a long time - it is actively used in Mesopotamia an ... Read more »
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Heliotrope

Bloodstone - opaque variety of chalcedony. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names: blood jasper, Oriental jade stone Stefanova, meat agate, plasma.

Wonderful stone heliotrope has become a favorite material for church utensils - chalices, monstrance, candlesticks, vessels, pectoral crosses, Panagia, that part of the dress of a priest in 18th-century Russia became a secular decorations. By the way, in our country the stone objects of worship had the most popular - and, of course, did not forget the heliotrope, because "covered with blood of Christ" gospel with rock "cover" or carved scapular in gold were also very beautiful. However, be aware that the history of heliotrope - far older than Christianity, because this stone was known and loved in ancient Egypt. Many papyri he called "a great mascot," which helped the wearer to "open the doors", contributed to the ex ... Read more »
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Heliodor

Heliodor-yellow variety of beryl. A golden, golden-yellow, green-yellow and orange-yellow. Glitter stone - glass. Hardness - 7.5 on the Mohs scale. Density of 2.6 - 2.8 gsm3. Synonyms: golden beryl, golden beryl, Davidson.

Quality and value is determined by the Heliodorus transparency. Most often encountered in nature opaque stones, and of course the price is low. Most strongly valued as examples of exceptional purity. Most of these stones are yellowish-green, lemon-yellow and golden yellow with a honey tinge. Sometimes there are very large transparent Heliodorus, which are excellent for jewelry work. One of these unique crystals colored young foliage is stored in the Mineralogical Museum of the Mining Institute in St. Petersburg. The crystal was found in the Urals, its length is 25 cm His most major one found to the present day heliodor stored at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. He faceted baguette, has a golden ... Read more »
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Jet

Jet - the dense and viscous type of fossil lignite gumolita. The hardness of 2.5-3.5 on the Mohs scale, density 1.3-1.4 g/cm3, resinous luster, sometimes electrified by friction, non-transparent. Other names: Good night, black amber, black jasper.

Jet, velvety-black solid gem, thanks to its softness and ease of processing quickly became a popular amulet in many nations. That's just his appointment was associated with sadness - "stone of sorrow and secrets" he was called, is a necessary attribute of many religious cults. For example, in Rome jade powder showered sacrifices to the gods of the underworld Hades in the Caucasus after the funeral wore ornaments of jet ancient Britons made of jet ornaments and funerary urns. In the Middle Ages, both among Christians and Muslims became popular jade beads, which are often cut out in the shape of human skulls. Very often made of black stone attributes to perform rituals in Georgia - ther ... Read more »
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Turquoise - water (hydrated) phosphate of copper and aluminum. Hardness of 5.6 on the Mohs scale, density of 2.6 g / cm. Silky shine, wax or glass. Other names: biryuzait (Agathius), Arabic stone Aztec stone celestial stone, Callan, azure spar kalchihyuitl.

Turquoise needs no introduction - the color of it went into the dictionary as the definition of the bright blue color. In the arsenal of any Russian ladies will certainly have jewelry with turquoise, much to our mothers and grandmothers turquoise was one of the most popular stones - the benefit of its mined in Central Asia in the set. The word itself is melodious, elegant and feminine, reminiscent of oriental beauty in a translucent dress, hiding behind the walls of the harem ... The original name - "Firyuza" stone of happiness. Indeed, just look at the wildly-blue, joyful turquoise, as the heart becomes easier. In ancient Chinese pagodas and palaces of Egyptian pharaohs, and in the tents of the nomadic ... Read more »
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Beryl

Beryl - silicate of beryllium and aluminum, which has many kinds of different colors. Hardness - 6.5-8 on the Mohs scale, density 2,61-2,91 g/cm3, fragile, oily sheen, glass, clear plehroizm. Other names of the mineral and its varieties: emerald, emerald, aquamarine, morganite, Vorobyov, Heliodorus, Bixby, Goshen, Australian emerald Shfela, verilos, belir, chrysoberyl, alexandrite, tsimofan.

Examples of such "families", which are beryl, among transparent gems are not so many, but here beryls are radically different: if topaz or tourmaline ultimately differ only in color, wearing, as it were, a common "name" (blue tourmaline, yellow topaz), and proper names are used rarely and mainly by connoisseurs, then that beryl close to each other, on the contrary, is not easy to guess the usual jewelry connoisseur, because each has its own different from and often known name. Beryl - one of the few stones that have entered into human his ... Read more »
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Azurite - water copper carbonate. Hardness of 4.0 on the Mohs scale, density of 3.5-4.0 g/cm3, perfect cleavage, fragile, shiny glass, diamond. Other names: shessilit, Copper Blue, Blue Mountains

It just so happened that azurite from ancient times the most actively used as paint - however, his fate was not unique to the Neolithic period, when, and that our beloved malachite also appreciated only as a green pigment. By the way, not everyone can be a mineral paint - it is his baby should also have bright color, while the blue turquoise or red rubies when grinding becomes whitish substance unfit for the artist. azurite went on all counts - it was soft enough, you can view it does not turn into a torment, and extremely rich in lush blue, from cobalt to sky-blue hues. Being a bit cheaper than the lapis lazuli, which also served as a popular color, azurite quickly gained considerable popularity - famous Egyptian murals depicting scenes from the life of gods and ... Read more »
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Aquamarine - transparent variety of beryl, color is due to the presence of traces of iron (Fe). The hardness of 6.5-8 on the Mohs scale, density 2,61-2,67 g/cm3, glitter glass. Dark blue, light blue, light blue, blue-green, blue-green.

Many years later, in the XVII century. AD stone this was the final name - the words «aqua marina» became aquamarine color of the mineral recalls clear lagoons of the Southern Seas, where the water is clear and bright, though there are stones darker and dull, as if a storm surge. Aquamarine is known since the days of ancient Rome and ancient Greece, where he was considered a talisman of the god of the ocean Poseidon (Neptune) have survived carved images of emperors, gods and mythical monsters on a blue-green aquamarine gems. In the ancient world of aquamarine, like other varieties of beryl, even cut lenses for those who can not see the course was made of this stone and jewelry, and encrustation. Aquamarines are different in t ... Read more »
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Diamond - a mineral, crystalline carbon. 10.0 Hardness on the Mohs scale, density 3.5 g/cm3. Other names: fary, Adamas, eagle rock, royal stone adamant, diamond, king.

Diamond appeared in Europe in the 5-6 centuries BC, and his birthplace was India, where the legendary Golconda mines of gems mined a huge part of the time. Granite stones did not know how, and either treated with a cabochon, or carefully cut off all the "extra" along natural faces, getting irregular crystal. That's why the ancient diamonds usually stood at cost rubies, emeralds and pearls - because only a skillful cut to really reveal their iridescent sheen. But that did not stop the Indian rulers hoard diamonds along with other precious stones decorate their clothing, weapons, utensils and even furniture. Hindus even shared diamonds, like ourselves, the four castes - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, completely giving the rock spirit.

At the same time the ... Read more »
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Almandine - cherry-red with a purple hue variety of the mineral garnet. Hardness of 7.5 on the Mohs scale, density 4.3 g/cm3, transparent, shiny glass. Other names: carbuncle grenlandin, Adelaide ruby, garnet Ceylon, Siberian grenades noble Vinica, Bechet, anthrax, bidzhazi, karfukelshteyn.

Was common on the origin of these rocks is a legend: that lives by the sea viper women-snake, and instead of her eyes - like a luminous star of the huge blood-red carbuncle on his forehead. Swimming, it leaves a stone on the beach, and the brave that he could sneak up and take away gem, gain power over the demoness, which opened to him the secrets of treasures stored underground. But how many heroes may try to steal the emerald - all failed because the viper always overtake the thief, how fast he ran.

Of course, this is fiction, but there is a fairy tale and a little hint of emerald, as in the old days was called almandine, really been the subje ... Read more »
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Amazonite - mineral of the feldspar group, a variety of microcline. The hardness of 5.0-5.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5-2.6 g/cm3, shiny glass. Other names - Amazon stone, Amazon spar, Colorado jade.

In fact, it is not known whether amazonite thus mascot ancient Amazons. However, in the excavation of ancient burial mounds from the Urals to the Don, where according to legend lived women warriors often find dark with time amazonite jewelry. And some scientists believe that the roots of the name of the stone are here - because no real connection with the river Amazon in South America, whose name allegedly called amazonite, does not exist, as there are no deposits of amazonite directly in the Amazon, so that the origins of this name is not very clear. The American Indians living in this area, often wear amulets with amazonite! Find out the true history of this stone archaeologists have yet to be - but now we know that amazonite was one of the favorite stone ... Read more »
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Amethyst - purple variety of transparent or translucent quartz. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5-2.8 g/cm3, shiny glass, light purple plehroizm, weak brown luminescence. Other names: Theotokion stone, dumpling, bishop's stone.

Scientists believe that the name "amethyst" comes from the Greek word «amethystos», which means "neopyanenny", "tough to intoxication." This stone is actually long been considered the best amulet against harmful for the body habits, and even in ancient times, amethyst rings worn before meal to keep the mind clear and uncomplicated. In this case, amethyst was the power not only to alcohol, but also to any outside influence - in the first Slavic Izbornik been said that amethyst "thoughts dashing removes, does not allow the memory othoditi" and the great doctor of the East Al-Biruni wrote that amethyst thrown into a bowl of water, heals many diseases, and even protect from poisoning.

Made of stone ... Read more »
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Agate - variously zonal variety of chalcedony with a pronounced striped and textured. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3. Layered structure, alternate transparent, translucent and opaque wavy stripes of different colors.

Agate - one of the first gems that became known to man. A role in this was played by its prevalence: agates are quite common and are mined in various parts of the world, from Russia to Australia. Agates are not always hidden under the ground: a lot of surface placers, for example, one can still find agates in the Crimea. Thus large agate - a rarity: one of the largest in the history of the agate craft a dish with a diameter of 75 cm, made in Trier in the IV. BC and is now stored in the Museum of Art History in Vienna. A first reliable historical information about agates come to us from the ancient world - the rock in the second millennium BC, was the most popular material for jewelry, cameos, intaglios, interior d ... Read more »
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Adularia, and moonstone - a kind of potassium feldspar. 6,0-6,6 hardness on the Mohs scale, density of 2.6 g/cm3, shiny silky glass. Another name-pearl spar, pearl spar, orthoclase, fisheye.

The Moonstone, there are many legends. They say, for example, that on the surface appears white spot, growing to the extent that it increases the glow of the moon to full moon. The sages said that the new moon grows cold stone and poured like moonlight, beginning to shine much brighter, and the decrease of the lunar disk luster fades until the next new moon. How can a piece of rock so strongly reflect the course of the lunar month - is unknown so far, but in India adularia was a sacred stone that brings happiness. For an unusual iridescent white color with bluish or yellowish tint was called "spit Moon" or "lunar foam" - believed that these stones are the frozen tears of the moon goddess, and it has the iridescence like having within itself its own source of radiance, ... Read more »
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Aventurine - rock, a kind of fine-grained quartz. The hardness of 6.0-7.0 on the Mohs scale, 2-2.6 g/cm3 density, luster glass. Other names: zlatoiskr, Taganay, Iskra-ists, Belorechye, jade Indian, sandastros, fuchsia.
The very appearance of aventurine conjures up thoughts of the supernatural fire: in the depths of translucent stone, which is usually red or yellow color, and very rarely green or blue, posverkivayut tiny multicolored sparks, whose mysterious shimmer seems too perfect to be natural effect. Aventurine has been known since ancient times - it was known in Egypt and in ancient India, where it is considered a talisman magicians and snake charmers. Indian traders and aventurine brought to Europe in the Middle Ages, where he became the material for jewelry and crafts. Aventurine deposit were found in the Urals, and then the stone became popular among stonecutters: the most ... Read more »
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Among blue and blue sodalite stones stands apart - a rare and mysterious gemstone. Sodalite dark history - Europe sodalite first became known in the last few centuries, and was first described in the literature of the stone was in 1811 no Pliny, Herodotus of sodalite or do not mention it, and not in the medieval "lapidary" - and this in spite of that it was known to the ancient Incas in South America, which he faced the walls and floors of houses cut out of his jewelry and sculpture, were removed from the sodalite mineral powder blue paint ultramarine. For some reason, the Spanish conquerors passed sodalite - a stone that went only good, because otherwise the already not great its natural resources to date at all would be depleted. Now sodalite mined in areas of volcanic rocks, such as on the Kola Peninsula, in Russia, in the area of ​​Mount Vesuvius in Italy, and in the mountains in Portugal, Germany, Romania, India, Norway, Canada, USA, Brazil.


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Carnelian - a variety of chalcedony staple structure. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density - 2.6 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names of the stone and its variants: smazen, kadnos, carnelian, sarder, linkury.

Cornelian pebbles, so beloved by Voloshin, has since been considered a symbol of the true precious Silver Age. But before carnelian was rated luminaries of Russian literature - so, AS Pushkin had two carnelian ring. Their fate is confused - one on which was carved three winged Cupid, wore poet since childhood, but once lost his wife Mary Decembrist Rayevsky Volkonskaya carnelian with her was in Siberian exile, and then got in the Pushkin Museum in St. Petersburg. Second, given the Countess Vorontsova Pushkin wore to death and left his friend, the poet Zhukovsky Zhukovsky of decoration passed to his son, then - to the writer Turgenev, who bequeathed it to Leo Tolstoy and then send a "worthy Russian writer." Alas, Pauline Viardot no ... Read more »
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Selenium - a translucent long staple variety of gypsum, calcium sulphate water. Hardness of 2.0 on the Mohs scale, a density of 2.3 g/cm3, a silky luster, pearl. Contains inclusions of sand, clay, hematite, sulfur and organic matter. Other names: dzhandarakand, moonstone.

Selenite soft not only on the physical qualities - his character, if I may say so on the gem, however mild and even moderate. It is extremely common, inexpensive, easy to process, and therefore known to many - but most are automatically classified it as "minor" ornamental minerals, whereas in fact originally selenite was the fourth largest stone Urals. By the way, by the middle of XX century in the Urals workshops annually produces up to 400,000 elephants, and that's not counting selenitovyh boxes, toilet sets, money boxes, figurines in our country selenite literally went to every house.
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