Chrysoberyl - aluminum oxide and beryllium, greenish-yellow, rarely colorless mineral. Hardness of 8.5 on the Mohs scale, density 3.5-3.8 g/cm3, shiny glass. Other names: tsimofan, cat's eye, Vaidurya (obsolete).
The name chrysoberyl is received for a golden yellow color (from the Greek. «Chrisos» - «Gold"). This beautiful and rare translucent jewel is one of those that are well known to people, the more popular of his rarest varieties: alexandrite and cat's eye (tsimofan). Already 4000 years ago found the first literary mention of chrysoberyl in the ancient Indian treatise on medicine "Rasaraja Tarangini ', which described its three varieties: the" color of bamboo leaf "(ordinary chrysoberyl)," a brilliant and iridescent, like a peacock's eye "(Alexander) and" Brilliant as cat's eye "(tsimofan or cat's eye).
This would seem like nothing on earth, a special stone alexandrite - merely a form of chrysoberyl. He is able to change color depending on the nature of light: the emerald-green in daylight, it goes into the red with violet-electric. This is due to the fact that because of the structure of the alexandrite differently absorbs light waves of different lengths and colors due to the abrupt transition of the human eye is sensitive to green light. The opening day of the Urals alexandrite coincided with the age of the future Emperor Alexander II, in whose honor and was given the name of the variety of chrysoberyl.
No less, and, perhaps, have been more popular in all times tsimofany - Chrysoberyl effect "cat's eyes". Originally it belonged only to the species name chrysoberyl, but later it became a many other stones with this effect (tourmaline, quartz, etc.). Pliny the Elder called tsimofany zvezdovikami. If the stone kaboshonirovat, on its surface there is broad silvery-white band of light running across the surface by turning stone. Tsimofany are green with a yellowish glow color, and may be bluish, purple and slightly pink.
Chrysoberyl cat's eye there is now extremely rare, the main area of their prey - Sri Lanka, Brazil (Minas Gerais), a new - Madagascar, Tanzania. In the same extract ordinary chrysoberyl, as well as in the USA, India, Africa, China, Burma (Myanmar), have a lot of fields in Europe. Sometimes Madagascar stones give up stones from Sri Lanka - are traditionally valued for higher purity and large size. In Russia, the chrysoberyl mined in Karelia, on the Kola Peninsula (well, where do without this "treasure Peninsula!") In the Urals he produced associated with emeralds, in the famous emerald mines.
Chrysoberyl can also be brown, red, and purple. Ceylon ahead of Brazil by the abundance of variously colored chrysoberyl, which can be found in the gravels in the south. In these alluvial deposits of precious stones are found all kinds of chrysoberyl, including cat's eye, but most famous Ceylon alexandrite. Ceylonese stones darker, rich olive green than the Russian alexandrite. The latter have a bluish tint, they are lighter and are therefore considered more valuable, but the stones are not too big and clean. Ceylon is alexandrite can reach a weight of 20 carats (1 carat is equal to 200 mg). However, it was Ural alexandrites during their ongoing production is considered the standard of quality, and currently this field is completely worked out. Alexandrite mined in Zimbabwe and Australia.
Chrysoberyl usually forms flat crystals, twins or tees germination. In fact, they look like a geometric figure or a heart (crystal-doubles), or as tabular or pyramidal hexagon ("pawn") where troynikovaniya. Beautiful, well-defined crystals can cost even more than jewelry faceted chrysoberyl (one carat chrysoberyl is estimated at several thousand dollars). Typically, the crystals are never more than 6 cm, and alexandrite - even less. Chrysoberyl crystals, both natural and cut stones, are found in many collections and museums. Thus, the most famous chrysoberyl "Hope" is exhibited in the Gallery of Minerals British Natural History Museum. It is named in honor of the former owner of the banker Henry Hope, a famous collector of jewelry. Beautiful, nearly flawless round tsimofan yellowish-green weighs 45 carats. He has a very high gloss, faceted brilliant cut and framed with a diamond engagement ring.
One of the largest chrysoberyl weighing 8 kg was registered in 1828 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The unique "friends PA Kochubey" - Friends of alexandrite found in the Urals in 1840 - is stored in the Mineralogical Museum of. Fersman. Its size is 22x13 cm, weight - more than six pounds, it is almost opaque crystal 22, to 6 cm size. In Washington, the Smithsonian stored gray cat's eye from Sri Lanka in 1715 carat weight of 171 carats tsimofany gray-green color and the largest faceted alexandrite - 66 ct. In the treasury of the kings of England is the cat's eye from Sri Lanka weighing 313.2 carats. This is not a complete list of major chrysoberyl, dispersed in collections around the world. Still, this beautiful stone is simply created to decorate a jewelry, because it belongs to the jewels I order along with diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald. There are also synthetic chrysoberyl, including alexandrite, but in fact it is only corundum and spinel. Find alexandrite jewelry with this - a rarity, besides this gem is very expensive, however, variation in prices depending on the quality of the stone and the severity of the so-called alexandrite effect is large enough - from 200 to 12 000 per carat. So often it can be found in old jewelry, especially Russian, he was incredibly popular in Russia in the XIX century, but gained fame as "Widow's Stone", unhappy Gem (Emperor Alexander II was assassinated).
In "Izbornik Svyatoslav" Chrysoberyl attributed magical properties: that it protects from scabies, leprosy and other skin diseases, as well as the harmful effects of alcohol. Indian magicians believed that through this stone to understand the language of animals and birds, see the future, and the healers recommend taking pounded chrysoberyl (or, as it was called in ancient times, Vaidurya) for rheumatism, arthritis, sore throat, diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Today, Eastern medicine also attributes to the jewelry chrysoberyl medicinal properties. It is believed that this stone jewelry with help cleanse the blood and a positive effect on blood circulation and blood vessels. Some litoterapevty believe chrysoberyl can have a therapeutic effect in heart disease.
In Europe, believed that rings with chrysoberyl attract the attention of women to men. Perhaps that is why in the XIX century were popular men's rings with tsimofanami, make them now, as clear stones inserted more frequently in women's jewelry: necklaces, earrings, bracelets and brooches. Since this gem has high hardness, it can safely be worn in rings and rings. Chrysoberyl best combined with yellow gold, and in this case, indeed, it prick the attention of any woman. Wearing this gem, not only in order to achieve success with women, but also to bring success in business, as chrysoberyl develops in its owner intuition, vision, and protects him from making bad decisions. In addition, it is believed that this stone supports around peace and harmony. Wear it and those who believe that chrysoberyl provides strength of family ties, or those who are going to start a family. Chrysoberyl is the mascot of people involved in commercial, scientific, and social activities. As such, suitable gold or platinum ring with faceted gem. This talisman protects against the negative impact caused by the envy of other people.
Chrysoberyl protects people born under the sign of Cancer and Gemini. In addition, the stone is favorable Capricorn and Libra, they serve the most of all the opportunities that arise in their way.