Jet - the dense and viscous type of fossil lignite gumolita. The hardness of 2.5-3.5 on the Mohs scale, density 1.3-1.4 g/cm3, resinous luster, sometimes electrified by friction, non-transparent. Other names: Good night, black amber, black jasper.
Jet, velvety-black solid gem, thanks to its softness and ease of processing quickly became a popular amulet in many nations. That's just his appointment was associated with sadness - "stone of sorrow and secrets" he was called, is a necessary attribute of many religious cults. For example, in Rome jade powder showered sacrifices to the gods of the underworld Hades in the Caucasus after the funeral wore ornaments of jet ancient Britons made of jet ornaments and funerary urns. In the Middle Ages, both among Christians and Muslims became popular jade beads, which are often cut out in the shape of human skulls. Very often made of black stone attributes to perform rituals in Georgia - there mined special jet called "Good night" to later save this cross, rosary beads, inlaid for the icon, a bracelet or a scapular worn such items inhabitants of Persia, Armenia, Turkey and many neighboring countries. The stunning beauty of the majestic different jade iconostasis Kazan cathedral in Irkutsk - alas, to this day it has not survived. At the same time, the jet was a permanent guest in the laboratories of European alchemists - they believed that the stone in any way guarantee the success of the occult experiments.
However, the jet, despite its grim appearance, felt more protected from harm - for example, an interesting superstition existed in Ireland - there ... burning jet in order to drive away from the village witch, because it was believed that the one who is able to breathe smoke, innocent in the creation of a black art. Conquered Spain in the X century the Moors carried a talisman of jet, carved in the form of figs, which kept its owners from the evil eye and disease. In England, the pieces of jet carried a poachers and thieves, and later - the postman: believed that the stone repels evil dogs. Another unusual destinations in Europe and the jet does affects the depth of superstition - the definition and restoration of virginity in women!
Unlike most of the "black stone", Jet actively used in everyday life - in ancient Egypt, it made all sorts of items for the ladies' room, including even the mirror. In ancient times of jet cut jewelry, mostly rings. This "ring" worn and fifth procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate ... jade powder Egyptian and Roman ladies lead round eyes to emphasize the color, make them deeper and more expressive. Funny application gem found in European countries in the "Dark Ages" - then the entire population of the poorest to the richest suffer from an abundance of fleas, lice and other insect pests, and the most wealthy citizens carried a stuffed animal, that bloodsuckers "switched" on artificial sable or a weasel eyes, claws and beak to "flea fur" does the right of black jet.
Traditionally used to create a jet of mouthpieces for pipes - a great, reasonably soft and durable as possible suitable material here, which, moreover, can be easily refined carving. Many pipe makers prefer jet classic clay and foam. Paid tribute to the most famous jade mouthpieces smokers, which can not be imagined without a fragrant tube in his mouth - for example, Ilya Ehrenburg and Georges Simenon, the latter being "passed" this hobby his famous hero Commissioner Megre there is no doubt that the talented detective also sometimes puffed on a pipe with a jade tip ...
With due gagate many misconceptions - so many consider it a kind of black amber. This is wrong on a point of view - Amber is fossilized, hardened resin of prehistoric pine trees, and the jet - petrified wood coal of similar trees. Yes, the source - wood - they have one, but participated in their creation are completely different to its components. All the more so in amber some extent always shines, and often does transparent - a jet is a dense black mass. Like amber, jet is not a mineral, but a gem of biogenic origin - and, together with other similar stones from ancient times used to create medicinal tinctures, ointments, elixirs addition, Jet also burned as fragrant incense like amber. The reason is that the hardened waste products of living organisms - coral, amber, pearls, jet - can be a source of biologically active substances. Sometimes jet electrified by friction, which is also common with amber, had that quality to the full. But the main reason for the confusion probably occurred because, for the word "jet" in tune with the Greek «gagates» - jet, although most scholars agree that the name of the stone was the name of Gages in Asia Minor. It is interesting that there is in the world and a real jet - stantinit immediately distinguishable from the inhomogeneous structure of the jet and a lighter dark brown, has the usual effect of a blue fluorescence.
Another mineral, which confused suffering jet - is agate, which, given that agate is a mineral, and the jet - an organic gem, the jet is not nothing to do. The origins of this error is not as clear, but there is a version that the blame here translators of ancient texts that mention data stones. For example, in the poem, Shota Rustaveli "Knight in the Panther's Skin", "black agate" is mentioned a few dozen times, comparing it with black pupils, eyelashes, eyebrows and hair of the characters. But in fact, in the original, instead of "agate" were the words, "Good night" (from "Good night" - a night in Armenian) - produced in the Caucasus jet! Hence, perhaps, went further references errors, such as the "agate-black eyes" ...
Medicinal properties of jet was studied antiquity. For example, Pliny indicates that a mixture of beeswax with jade powder cures scrofula, boiled in wine stone relieves toothache, and the smoke from the burning jet helps with hysteria, but it may contribute to epilepsy. Paradox - another scientist, Ibn Abu Sinn from the East, said that the products of combustion jet contrary save from epileptic seizures. Current litoterapevty believe jet - universal healer, can handle virtually any disease and guide its master stream beneficial energy. To help the affected officers use overlay jade plates, and better apply them, standing upright. Jet dissolves tumors, improves the functioning of the kidneys, liver, pancreas, brain and nervous system and soothes, relieves stress and nervous disorders. Ornaments of jet pair to be worn on the body (eg, earrings, two rings, two bracelets), so that the stone touches the skin and make the most tightly adjacent to it. Bracelets of jet help with joint pain and cramps, rings on the index finger and facilitate meteosensitivity cropped cold, on the little finger relieve insomnia, headaches, problems with hearing, vision and breathing on his thumb - improve the cardiovascular, circulatory and lymphatic systems.
Some tribes jet was dedicated to the Great Mother - it absorbs the fears and anxieties of the owner, dispels negativity and resentment that man creates in his soul, as well as protection from outside influence, the evil eye, evil, envy, deceit. It helps to see the hidden and expose the lies, "remove the mask" with others. It has long been a talisman of magicians who want to learn the secrets of the universe, to learn to control reality - but do not use the jet just out of curiosity, this stone is too powerful. On the other hand, the jet will approach people in the home quiet and peaceful, protect them from abusers, and sometimes independently "avenge" them. Like many gemstones, jet can evolve on the hand wearing it, to warn of danger or indicate something important: to take or lose luster, heavier, chilly or warm up. Well suited such a talisman of scientists, lawyers and travelers. Master jet brings, first of all, courage and self-confidence, unless the person himself is set to win his weakness. And if you want to protect your house, get a statue, or even a few beads of jet - stone create a unique protective "shield." Another curious little jet mission is very different from the usual qualities of gems - jet "separates the men from the women," that is, to paraphrase, a person suppresses sex attraction. In gold straighten jet should not be - it is best to use silver or copper. Astrologically jet shown Capricorn, Scorpio and Aries, Taurus and Libra and wear jet undesirable.