Tourmaline - purple varieties transparent or translucent quartz. The hardness of 7.0-7.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2,9-3,26 g/cm3, glitter glass, expressed plehroizm. Old name - Shirley. Brand names of varieties - Brazilian sapphire, ruby Brazilian, Brazilian emerald.
Tourmalines appeared in Europe recently - the first samples were brought from Ceylon in 1703, sailors returning from the Indian colonies. There is no doubt that India tourmalines used since ancient times, especially since there is this kind of minerals is one of the most valuable. Dutch colonists, I must say, at first did not find tourmaline jewelry application - rough Tourmaline crystals are taken out of the ashes of their pipes of tobacco. Maybe it was because the tourmaline has a wonderful property electrify when heated - even its name to the language of the island of Sri Lanka, "turamali" means "attracting the ashes." Tourmalines, especially red and green varieties, immediately attracted a lot of attention, but they are often confused with rubies, emeralds and spinels. Thus, in the crown of the Czech kings, said to have killed the person who wears it with no right to it was inserted was not ruby, tourmaline and tourmaline as weighing 500 carats, not pink spinel, decorated crown of Empress Anna Ivanovna.
In Europe, tourmalines settled down once, but loved did not - another to Russia, where these stones came from distant India, immediately gained immense popularity. In this case, there tourmalines are much earlier - in the XVI century. they are widely imported from the East and were used for inlay cups and boxes, pointing bartender and Mantle royal dresses, jewelry church utensils, icons and crosses salary. Especially loved were the same pink and red tourmalines with the elusive sirenevato shade. Tourmalines adorned the crowns of the great princes - such as hats and Mikhail Romanov Ivan. And so since then, as tourmalines were mine in the Urals, they began to use many times more - necklaces, rings, portbuketah, brooches, snuff boxes, sometimes as material for carving small figurines and vessels. Undoubtedly, a great role in enhancing tourmaline popularity in Russia and played a great Faberge, who was extremely fond of this stone, and has used in jewelry and small items of decor. After the Revolution of tourmaline for a time seemed to have forgotten - and to produce it in this country are much smaller but today thank tourmaline returns, and to a much greater extent than before. Unfortunately, the price is clear, large, and clean stones also increased, so the highest quality tourmaline are the production of high-end jewelry piece. And speaking of the Russian jewelry stores, there tourmaline regardless of the price was a real rarity.
It hurt more because tourmaline - the most beautiful of jewels, each of its species is interesting in its own way. The best known red-pink tourmaline, the color of ripe berries like raspberries - they are called rubellite. Verdelity - dark-green tourmalines, resembling bright emeralds - the second most common. The third place you can put "watermelon" Gem - the most amazing views of tourmaline, multicolored stone, different parts of which are the red, then green. Whole crystal like a piece of juicy watermelon: he, like this delicious fruit, the red and green serdtsevinka "crust." However, this tourmaline not end there: among them there are indigolite - dark blue mineral that is often reminiscent of sapphire and achromatic - clear, colorless stone with a bluish tinge and a bright yellow Canary, and brown dravite and cherry Siberia, and opaque black and gloomy schorl and the most rare and expensive neon-blue Paraiba tourmaline. In addition, the color is distributed in the crystal, too curious way: different angles, the intensity of the color is slightly different and beautiful stone shimmers in the light, and minerals are to the effect of asterism or "cat's eyes", as well as alexandrite effect that change color depending on the nature lighting.
As a healer tourmaline versatile enough due to the large variety of colors. In general, tourmalines improve sleep, harmonize the endocrine and immune systems. Noteworthy is the ability of tourmaline (schorl especially) a positive effect on cancer. Black Tourmaline is also indicated in the treatment of neurotic disorders. Green tourmalines restore nerves after stressful situations. Tourmaline red shades, especially rubellites, reduced metabolism, improve complexion, enhance potency and sexual function of the body, improve blood circulation and generally positive effect on the circulatory system. Watermelon tourmaline combines the properties and pink, and green of their fellows.
Tourmaline energy has long been associated with sexual energy, even considering something like an aphrodisiac. In India, red-pink tourmaline - the traditional male mascot, granting potency, more attractive to the opposite sex, mutual love, and women tourmaline is not recommended, because the stone supposedly could make them too active and insatiable in his personal life. Green tourmaline - money "decoy" that attracts success and wealth as powerfully as red - love. However, verdelite able to absorb excess energy and cool the senses, so it should not be people older than 35. It should be noted that both of these stones - mascots artists, bestowing inspiration, creative energy and recognition of talent. Multicolored tourmalines - happiest rocks while carrying luck, and erotic impulses, they make life easier, bright and cheerful. Blue tourmaline brings peace and tranquility, promotes wisdom and contemplation. Sherl long acquired notoriety - he is considered a stone of witches and wizards, and for good reason: it protects from the so-called "Evil forces" and poltergeist, helps to reflect astral attack or attack themselves. Colorless tourmaline helps business people in the difficult moments of doing business, it has to be worn as a necklace or a ring. Astrologically red, green and watermelon tourmaline suitable Aries, Taurus, Leos, Libra, Scorpio Capricorn more useful green, Aquarius - blue and green, Sagittarius - Blue and Scorpio - black.