Turquoise - water (hydrated) phosphate of copper and aluminum. Hardness of 5.6 on the Mohs scale, density of 2.6 g / cm. Silky shine, wax or glass. Other names: biryuzait (Agathius), Arabic stone Aztec stone celestial stone, Callan, azure spar kalchihyuitl.
Turquoise needs no introduction - the color of it went into the dictionary as the definition of the bright blue color. In the arsenal of any Russian ladies will certainly have jewelry with turquoise, much to our mothers and grandmothers turquoise was one of the most popular stones - the benefit of its mined in Central Asia in the set. The word itself is melodious, elegant and feminine, reminiscent of oriental beauty in a translucent dress, hiding behind the walls of the harem ... The original name - "Firyuza" stone of happiness. Indeed, just look at the wildly-blue, joyful turquoise, as the heart becomes easier. In ancient Chinese pagodas and palaces of Egyptian pharaohs, and in the tents of the nomadic Scythians could see necklaces, earrings, pendants and belt inlaid with turquoise stones - turquoise goes out of fashion for many millennia.
Countless are the beliefs associated with the "Firyuza" - in ancient times in some countries believed that the blue stone was formed from the bones of the dead lovers, and so is the consummate talisman in amorous affairs. The peoples of the Caucasus, the Volga region and Central Asia, the bride certainly adorned with turquoise jewelry, and treasure Iranian shahs still kept the tiara with turquoise and diamonds, designed for supreme ruler. Turquoise in the ancient world in general I think more and talisman of victory, stone warrior king. For example, she served as an amulet for combat horses - it was decorated harness to make animals hardy, fast and obedient. In Mexico, along with turquoise jade was the favorite stone, a symbol of the God of Fire, it shields decorated soldiers and royal crowns. Apaches believed that if get to the edge of the rainbow after the storm, in the wet ground will find turquoise, which is when privyazhesh her to bow, make you invincible hunter. The religious significance of turquoise in the East was huge - according to the Qur'an, all the learning and the sage advice of the Prophet Muhammad were once recorded on a turquoise bead, and for good reason Muslims are so fond of turquoise beads. And the Aztecs buried their chiefs in turquoise jewelry and masks used in rituals of human skulls, inlaid turquoise and turquoise found in Egyptian tombs. Interestingly, in Europe at the height of the colonial era it was thought that a noble man can not do without the ring with turquoise, but women started wearing this stone only in the eighteenth century. For example, Pushkin before the duel took his wife Natalya Nikolaevna "for good luck" gold ring with an oval pale blue turquoise may not work just because the amulet that belonged to another "master" ... Boris Godunov also believed that turquoise brings good luck - in Armory kept his throne with a large turquoise, but for good reason believe that turquoise does not tolerate dishonest people who violate the divine commandments of morality ...
Unique, almost magical ability to change the color of turquoise with time or in response to selection of the human body has long been called the stone compliments. Tsar Ivan the Terrible turquoise feared - before his death he complained that turquoise in his hand dimmed, and predicted his own imminent demise. Blue stone is really sensitive to careless storage, high humidity or dryness contrary, is suffering from a touch of wet hands, fading in an unventilated room, you can not drop it in water or, even more so in the chemicals, or it may become discolored. Even in ancient times knew that you can enhance the color of turquoise, soaking her wax or grease, soak in water (it enhances the color for a few days, but after drying stone fades). The bright turquoise sun can fade, so keep it in the closed box, and return to a natural color stone can be briefly wrapped in a piece of raw meat.
While conventional image of a bright turquoise stone, a color similar to the pure deep water in the lagoons of warm seas, in fact, a great many varieties of turquoise. It is even a white and whitish-blue, apple-green, greenish-brown, almost blue, with black, white or yellowish-brown veins, opaque or translucent ... almost superstition that green turquoise "older" blue on anything not based - stone already producing certain colors, especially the green turquoise less responsive to moisture and light. Unfortunately, the nature of the large pieces of turquoise does not occur, so the wizard before Christ learned to improve the quality of the stone and glue large products of small fragments. At the moment about 80% of the incoming market turquoise - is refined with stones, for example, the top layer impregnated with gem colored wax, increasing the resistance to external influences, or small particles are compressed turquoise paint chips and a special dye. Pressed turquoise better than whole, but rather better - in fact it is not only much cheaper but also a strong, durable, almost does not react to moisture and heat, has a bright color and smooth, while the solid rock of similar price would be a solid black brown mass with rare blue stone. Translucent turquoise high quality jewelry in treatment is not required, is rare and only used in expensive jewelry, such as rings by Stephen Webster or earrings from De Grisogono. Pressed as turquoise - quite affordable natural material, which is widely used in jewelry of the middle class, for example, gold products sold in our jewelry stores.
Often, instead of using natural mineral turquoise turkvenit - naturally it white or blue with black veins, it can be distinguished by the characteristic porcelain luster (luster of a natural wax or turquoise satin). Turkvenit by all accounts is a future replacement of turquoise - blue stone because reserves are nearly exhausted, and on the external qualities, and physical, they are almost identical, however, since it opened a few short decades ago, appreciate it had not yet. In this turkvenit has absolute beauty, and the same fate obviously tanzanite, which was first used as a cheap substitute for sapphire, and then surpassed that same sapphire in value and popularity.
Acquisition jewelry turkvenita is justified - it will not crack from heat, do not change color from near feverish human skin, not afraid of water and light, and understand exactly what you are wearing, natural turquoise or turkvenit, under force only experienced jeweler, and then checks should be carried out in the laboratory. Given that such stones are much cheaper doubles or even refined compressed natural turquoise necklace or a ring of turkvenita can be considered a bargain.
Since ancient times, it is believed that turquoise has extraordinary healing properties. Pendant or necklace of turquoise temper bleeding, heal stomach ulcers and liver disease, especially hepatitis. Insomnia helps turquoise in silver frame, a gem in a frame of gold increases immunity and normalize all the processes of the body. If mineral darkened - should see a doctor immediately. Turquoise cures colds, sore throats, flu, insomnia, arthritis, rheumatism, diabetes, allergies, skin disorders and neuro-psychiatric illness, it is very useful for the eyes. Gem is able to normalize the thyroid gland. However, strangely enough, the body is intoxicated turquoise can harm, so before contact with the stone should conduct light diet or fasting, you can not wear it totally blind and deaf people. In South America and Asia, it was believed that turquoise zaschizaet from any poisons, including snake bites, in Iran especially loved this stone inlaid silver hookahs, water containers, cups and coffee cups. In medieval lapidary mentions that rimmed in gold turquoise protects its wearer from falls, fractures and injuries of the lower extremities.
In the East there is a saying: "Do not ever become poor the hand on which the ring with turquoise." Turquoise - the universal charm of wealth, abundance and prosperity, bringing the favor of the ruling persons. Believed that if a piece of turquoise "catch" and see the young moon, it will bring happiness and prosperity in the coming month. It is a stone that brings the power and authority, stone fighters and winners, giving invulnerability and unconditional positive outcome of any battle. White Turquoise - the mascot for the military, police officers, managers, entrepreneurs and the people who are actively climbing up the corporate ladder. It helps to concentrate on keeping the vanity and protects the trouble to indicate the direction in which to move forward, in addition, turquoise is an inexhaustible source of life energy, as if the owner charging the battery. However, remember that you can only use the gem highly moral people, frivolous and malicious owners turquoise presses. For travelers, turquoise is also useful - it will take the potential hazards will make the road easier. Do not forget, turquoise, blue special - is also a great help in love, it restores peace in the family, safeguard against infidelity, increases the attractiveness brings mutual love, in antiquity lovers exchanged with turquoise jewelry as a sign of mutual fidelity, and it was thought that if the stone is dim, then turned away from you favorite. Works particularly well with blue turquoise ring, a gift from her husband - it brings happiness in all areas of life.
Green Turquoise can be worn only for people over 60 years - it will bring them longevity, energy and self-confidence, and it is especially recommended for Scorpio and Taurus. White Turquoise, the most powerful and luminous of all, it is recommended to people impulsive and risky, and Aries and Pisces. Bluish-whitish turquoise brings good fortune Sagittarius - it balances their stormy temperament, gives wealth and good luck in all your endeavors. But the rest of the zodiac recommend bright blue turquoise - the only ones who wear this gem does not, it's Leo and Virgo.