Amber (succinite) is organic and is a fossilized resin of coniferous trees. The hardness of 2-2.5 on the Mohs scale, density from 1.08 to 1.3 g/cm3. Color varies widely from almost colorless to black prebladaet golden yellow and reddish coloration of varying intensity.
History dating man with amber has about 9000 years - even in the Neolithic Baltic amber has been the object of desire and commerce, first raw and then in the form of beads, amulets, ritual figures of people and animals ... Actually, a number of peoples amber itself was analogue of the monetary unit. Amber decorated crown of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun, it is mentioned in Homer's famous "Odyssey." In ancient Rome, with its love of glitter decorative and ornamental stone dominated Amber Fashion - merchants specifically went for the amber to the North. Amber grinds figurines, bowls and vessels, furnishings, bas-reliefs and, of course, numerous decorations. Stone valued and for the beauty and for his alleged healing and protective properties. Little Amber figure, according to Pliny the Elder, cost more than a servant of the living. In China and Japan, amber cherry color, so called "Dragon's blood", worn by members of the imperial family. In ancient Russia amber called "ilektr" - believed to be the flammability of amber resin was the creation of the mythical phenomenon of "white stone flammable Alatyr" that appears in a number of old Russian fairy tales and legends. After Pearl was the second most popular precious stone, mainly used to manufacture beads and inserts for rings and earrings. In the Middle Ages amber was widely used in Europe and Russia for the production of religious objects - beads, jewelry for salaries icons, the Patriarch Nikon was an amber rod. Highest level of development reached amber case in 17-18 centuries - then carved amber figurines, inlay and mosaic. Of interconnected without frame joint to joint plates create large interior objects - sculpture, jewelry boxes, snuff boxes, vessels, vases, candle ... It was then created was the famous Amber Room - a unique monument of architecture and art kamennoreznogo, which was a study of 22 precast wall mosaic amber panels, multiple boards, decorative items and jewelry made of amber.
Distinguish about two hundred and fifty species of amber. Size pieces range from 1 mm to the stones of a goose egg, with occasional large boulders weighing more than 1 kg. Amber varies in the degree of transparency - from matt to very glassy, and in color. Shades it as much color in the spectrum - is water-clear "icy" stones, white-frosted "bone", green, cherry red, silver, black ... If frozen inside the resin many air bubbles, it becomes foamy and white color. Some stones have "inclusion" - an insect or plant part that fell into the resin lot more resources in time. Such amber has always had a special value: at the beginning of our era of amber with a fly Phoenician merchants were paying tens of daggers and swords, and in the 19th century, they were particularly fashionable in France and Russia. Color and transparency have always been the benchmark value of the stone, and different people prefer different types of amber. For example, in ancient Rome, white and amber wax burned as incense, jewelry value are red amber, and Emperor Nero loved only jet. At the beginning of our era preferred reddish amber or transparent gold. In the East, were popular dairy and transparent yellow with greenish amber. In amber jewelry has long tried to "refine": boiled in honey for a reddish color, boiled in oil for lighting was added to the oil organic dyes for coloring in different colors.
Since ancient times, amber was valued for its medicinal properties. It proclaimed the panacea for all ills - the Roman Pliny the Elder claimed that amber protects against prostate and mental disorders, the German reformer Martin Luther believed that the stone protects against kidney stones. Not to consider other diseases, the doctor subservient sunlight - this eye problems, and heart ailments and stomach disease, and bleeding, and dizziness, colds and viral infections ... Amber were with him in the prevention, taking into amber powder with other ingredients or rubbed salve wounds and fractures with the powder. Smoke from burnt amber has a great cleansing power - he rebuked heartache, cures rheumatism, relieves cough and asthma, and also repels insects. The healing power of amber in demand and modern physicians - Amber emit so-called "Succinic acid", the range of application is very broad: it is added to toothpaste to strengthen teeth and ointment for rheumatism and arthritis, is taken orally as a medication or bioactive ingredient. It normalizes the acid-base balance, refreshes, strengthens the heart muscle, reduces stress and inflammation, improves the function of the kidneys and intestines. Amber liquor is considered a good remedy for sore throat and respiratory tract, plates rubbed amber whiskey for headaches, children are given chew when those amber teething.
Amber Energy not less remarkable than the ability of healer. He gives beauty and longevity, attracts love, activates sex appeal. This stone is an optimist - it cures depression, brings good spirits and fun, exciting in the surrounding high interest to its owner. The Greeks considered the amber stone of happiness, giving victory in battle. In different countries, amber was an amulet that protects against witchcraft and the evil eye damage - in clothes hid amber beads, which opposed the evil forces. Amber necklace was a symbol of marital happiness - as in Russia, and in the East brides gave amber beads. Pregnant amber jewels ensure easy and successful delivery. In Italy, the amber was the mascot of wealth and fertility. Rich Romans were with him amber beads, assuming that strengthens the power of amber. Astrologically amber fits all, but most of all Leos, Aries and Gemini, Taurus and Capricorn is contraindicated.