Citrine - the yellow variety of quartz. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3, shiny glass, completely transparent. Other names: golden topaz, western topaz, Spanish topaz, false topaz, Bohemian topaz, Madeira.
First he was sincerely believed topaz - for its bright lemon-yellow or light orange shade so resembled the color of one of the varieties of this mineral, known since ancient times! And despite the fact that the jewelry with citrine in ancient Rome and Greece were scientists and philosophers as talismans to ensure eloquence and recognition, self-titled yellow quartz had. Only in the mid-18 th century researcher Valerius isolated golden variety of quartz as a species - and it was not easy, as topaz and citrine often make a difference in appearance, and the difference lies only in hardness, density and weight, which have a large size topaz. Here was born the term "Madeira citrine" - so the most rare and beautiful color of the stone, sunny orange, like a thick honey or orange jelly. However, there are other citrines - lemon yellow, lives up to its designation, which went from the Latin «citreus» - lemon or orange-brown, like a drop of amber resin. A most unusual kind citrine - amethyst, citrine or Ametrine, dual colored polychrome stone, which, like watermelon tourmaline combines Citrine and amethyst sectors.
Alas, in the nature of yellow hues in a transparent quartz are rare - that's why most of citrine in the Middle Ages was "born" in the form of other mineral species of the same family, and then transformed by craftsmen. The method that was used for this, today would be called thermal treatment - the fact is that when heated to 300-400 degrees. With smoky quartz and amethyst change color, becoming citrines, as well as indicators of density and hardness of the transparent quartz are the same, then the result is similar to citrine, created in the golden color of Mother Nature. The most unusual method was invented in Russia, the Urals - where large pieces of quartz baked in pastry, getting fashionable at the court of Catherine II citrines, but in order to avoid cracking, ready crystals were removed from the "bread" after complete cooling. For small stones there another way: they are placed in a clay pot, thickly interspersed with ash, and put in a preheated oven at night. Interestingly, of the brown-brown rauchtopas a pale-yellow crystals of bright citrine, amethyst of lavender - thick with a reddish-orange hue.
Why not just made of citrine in Czarist Russia - and fashionable jewelry for fashionistas, and framed in gold engraved seals that seal was taken in the 19th century writing. In South America, were made of citrine amulets guarding the owners from a snakebite. In Europe, he gained fame strange mascot scam, and rings with him were cheats, thieves and professional gamblers. Now citrine along with other types of quartz - again on the crest of a wave of popularity, shines in a wide variety of jewelry collections and is especially good in combination with other colored stones such as amethyst, blue topaz or chrysolite. But the most distinctive jewelry luxury invented the famous Spanish company Carrera y Sarrera: a collection called Sol y Sombra («Sun and Shadow") huge round orange citrine "Madera" surrounded by golden rays, and sparkle like a real little sun ...
In the Middle Ages it was believed that a ring with citrine, worn at night, drives away the nightmares and bad thoughts, soothes and provides a peaceful deep sleep. In India, citrine is an assistant in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Today litoterapevty citrine recommend for general lifting of physical vitality, strengthen memory and increase brain activity. At a headache citrine can also help ease the offensive, in addition mascot with citrine shown to children with speech defects. Like his "relative" rauchtopaz, citrine is useful for those who want to get rid of drug addiction - but if one is used in order to stop the use of intoxicating drugs, the latter helps in the period of abstinence and withdrawal, the person does not return to the former occupation.
Energy Citrine - a lucky stone and a positive attitude. It contributes to the normalization of relations of friendship and family ties, as well as make a man eloquent, persuasive and charming. A talisman of politicians, public figures, people employed PR and public relations, that is, those who by occupation is in constant contact with lots of people - they are most suitable pendant or a pendant with citrine. Fragile and delicate lemon quartz makes it more practical and rational, teaches healthy convenience - it just needs them to gain self-confidence and composure. Citrine can also benefit the business, especially in the beginning of the entrepreneurial path, if the project is fraught with excitement and risk - there will ring with a bright orange stone. Citrine protects his master in travel and business trips, what is even more useful for business people. Citrine and fit all engaged in "hand" creative work: jewelers, sculptors, wood carvers, restorers, stonecutters. In addition, it helps the native magicians, fortune-tellers, illusionists. Astrologically citrine shown Leos, Gemini, Virgo, Taurus is not recommended.