Chalcedony is a variety of quartz, which is a type of silica. Chemical composition - content SiO2 - 90-99% observed impurities Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, H2O (in the pores of the unit). Crystals - translucent. Glitter - glass. Hardness - 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density - 2.6 g/cm3.
Chalcedony - an unusual stone, because this name chalcedony understand a group of fibrous opaque minerals, differentiated by color and nature of the picture, but the same hardness, mineralogical structure and waxy luster. This orange chalcedony called cornelian, chalcedony and red - carnelian, chalcedony and blue - sapphirine, and the most expensive of chalcedony bright green chrysoprase, and brownish-red sardonyx, and light yellow waxy chalcedony tseregat ... Dark green chalcedony with red spots and stripes called heliotrope, layered chalcedony - agate, chalcedony tape - onyx ... All the colors of the spectrum, all kinds of colors of gems found in nature, it seems, went to the same group of minerals. There are also some very unusual chalcedony, eg engidros - almost transparent blue-white formation, contains within itself ... water, or flint - brownish-gray stone, with which a couple of centuries ago, people make fire. Hardest hit sapphirine human imagination - it was called a blue moon rock or stone of Mecca and has been associated with religion and spirituality. That belongs to the chalcedony fulgurite - "Thunderbolt", which in the Middle Ages called "elven finger." This formation that appears when the lightning strikes in quartz sand, gets under heat lightning charge form tubes. It was thought that this - arrowheads elves - eternally young inhabitants of Oz, hidden underground.
Chalcedony generally are not only a favorite material for jewelry in the ancient world - with the stones tied many legends, and references to them can be found in the most sacred religious texts. Four of the twelve foundations of the wall of the heavenly city of New Jerusalem are in the biblical book of Revelation (Rev. XXI) is chalcedony. Varieties of agate, chalcedony was made legendary cup in which Joseph Arifeysky allegedly collected a drop of blood of Jesus Christ - believe that it is this bowl is kept in the treasury of the Austrian royal family. Onyx walls were made in the temple of the biblical King Solomon in Jerusalem - the stone perfectly reflect light in the church has always been light, but the windows was not in it. The Prophet Mohammed, Allah's vicegerent on earth, wearing a ring of carnelian.
Popularity chalcedony after the fall of ancient Rome and the extinction of the ancient world was under the heel of the barbarians, but again remember it with the beginning of the Classical period. Interest in the variety of chalcedony spurred excavations of ancient Roman cities - gems and cameos of carnelian, agate and sapphirine were the subject of wishes of the most prominent persons, they have been the subject of rivalry, they were inserted into brooches, rings, earrings, belt buckles, necklaces and tiaras. Continued interest in the ancient art in high society, and in the heyday of Empire. Chalcedony, as one of the most popular in ancient Greece and Rome stones again become relevant. The royal houses of Europe have large collections of gems and cameos - especially famous for the Hermitage, where there were many thousands of cameos, as a modern production and found in archaeological excavations at the time. Preserved collection description - many shelves and cabinets, literally littered with cameos with mythical stories and their heads, made on chalcedony, carnelian, agate and sardonyx. Signet of chalcedony was Napoleon, the poet Byron, had two such ring A. Pushkin. Lost relevance chalcedony and in the 20th century - it has become a true symbol of Russian poetry of the early century. The cream of the Russian intelligentsia of the time liked to be in the hospitable home of Koktebel Voloshin, passionately loved striped, blue and orange chalcedony, which is going right on the coast. Owners of "ferlyampiksov" as they called the Crimean pebbles guests Voloshin became Andrew White, Osip Mandelstam, Alexei Tolstoy, Mikhail Bulgakov, Alexander Green, Gumilev, Marina Tsvetaeva ...
Chalcedony has not lost relevance - it is one of the favorite gemstones, the most popular material for all kinds of women's and men's jewelry, from necklaces to strict romantic cufflinks. A variety of colors and adequate affordability makes it the perfect base for creating figurines, vases, dishes, mosaics, inlaid furniture, interior parts. Tiles of certain varieties of chalcedony veneer walls wet areas, chalcedony cut countertops, sinks, picture frames and mirrors. Belt chalcedony onyx - fine material for windows and lampshades. The oldest center of mining and processing of chalcedony is in Germany, large deposits are located in Eastern Siberia in Russia, Crimea, Sri Lanka, Australia, USA, Italy, Poland and the Czech Republic.
Medicinal properties of chalcedony have been described in ancient Chinese, the ancient Indian, Roman and Greek treatises, Assyrian cuneiform writings of Avicenna, Albert the Great, Agrippa Netteskheyma, Paracelsus, Claudius Galen and Pliny, a lot of talk about it and in the medieval lapidary and ancient Izbornik. It was believed that it helps stop bleeding, helps with fever, protect from any poisons, sharpens vision and hearing and treat related diseases, a positive effect on the skin. Dr. Johann Schroeder prescribed powder chalcedony with dysentery. In Islamic countries make toothpicks out of orange and yellow chalcedony - they whiten teeth, strengthen gums and prevent them from bleeding. Chalcedony protects men from headaches and colds, helps women get rid of degenerative disc disease and varicose veins. Chalcedony prevents infertility and impotence, restores the immune system, improves metabolism. He treats neurological diseases, beads of it should carry with Graves' disease and thyroid problems. Chalcedony protects against solar radiation and even promotes the resorption of cancer. Scientifically proven that certain types of chalcedony have weak radioactivity, which promotes healing of small wounds and swelling - especially milk-white and orange. During the Great Patriotic War in the hospitals used kamnelechenie - chalcedony heated and kept three to five minutes to the affected area, causing significantly accelerated wound healing, and boils, abscesses and tumors rapidly.
Magic and power properties of chalcedony has repeatedly been awarded the closest attention. White, yellow, red and orange chalcedony stones has long been considered of love - they are attracted to a woman man's attention, keep the love spell of infidelity and love, grant the wearer to moral purity and a long and happy married life. They help to find a spouse, and to organize a life together, arouse desire have children. Chalcedony - a stone cheerful and open people, he can not stand selfish to its owner it attracts new friends and universal sympathy, banishes melancholy and sad thoughts.
Chalcedony saves from nightmares, banishes ghosts and lunatics stores during their night journey, protects against the evil eye and negative energy. Chalcedony - the mascot of lawyers and artists. It was believed that if you put a stone under your tongue - it will give the gift of eloquence. Amulet of chalcedony help win any litigation, improves memory and enhances insight. Chalcedony reveals innate creative talents carrier in music, painting, theater or literature. At the same time, it brings success and attracts the material well, distracts from the owner of detractors. It is believed that when worn on the middle finger set in silver ring with chalcedony, that this hand will never become poor. Chalcedony in the house protects against natural disasters and accidents, as it neutralizes geopathic zones. Astrologically chalcedony particularly useful born in the 18th and 22th lunar days. White, pink and blue are favorable Taurus and Libra, yellow and green - Virgos, dark variety - Capricorn, black chalcedony is the mascot of the Scorpion and born at full moon.