Sapphire - a variety of corundum gemstone group I, second in hardness after diamond. Hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale, density 4.0 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Another name - ruby, sapphire azure, blue alexandrite.
Isstari sapphires are welcome guests and royal regalia, and the decorations of the wealthiest aristocrats. Especially popular were transparent sapphire deep cornflower blue - they were called "royal", is considered a symbol of justice, wisdom, and supreme power. Blue stones known in ancient Egypt, where the priests wore on his chest sapphire amulets, and a crown adorned Cleopatra huge sapphire, in ancient Rome, where sapphires were strewn, and clothes, and jewelry, and in Greece, where Alexander the Great wore a sapphire ring. Print the biblical King Solomon was made according to tradition was of sapphire, in Revelation sapphire is the penultimate step leading to the heavenly Jerusalem, a sapphire among others was decorated outfit High Priest in the Bible.
In pagan times as sapphire dedicated to Zeus-Jupiter, the supreme god, the father, the governor and the judge and he was considered a sapphire frozen drip divine ambrosia, drink of immortality, accidentally spilled from the citadel of the gods on Earth. In Buddhist legends speak of a high four-mountain of precious stones, which is located under the North Star on the pole of the world - and the side facing the human world, is composed of blue sapphires, so supposedly the sky above us blue. Muslim legend tells of a mountain range of sapphires surrounding the human world and giving the sky blue glow - so these stones are called "heavenly spray."
In the Middle Ages sapphire remained one of commonly used stones - known star sapphire decorated casket of Charlemagne, sapphire ring of St. Edward the Confessor, who was later inserted into the Crown of the British Empire, and sapphire ring Mary Stuart, was decorated with sapphires Holy Crown of Hungary, and the Czech kings regalia . In Russia, in the Middle Ages were particularly popular is blue and blue stones, sapphires were very important - in addition to the already mentioned Ivan IV, sapphires loved and Boris Godunov, and Ivan Kalita, and Mikhail Romanov, and Ivan, and many, many others - do not count stored in the Kremlin Armory buckets, chalices, bartenders, jewelry, armor, crosses. Decorated with sapphires and Monomakh, and "Grand set" Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. More recently, a 200 carat sapphire crowned imperial power for the coronation of Catherine II, and Alexander II gives his beloved wife a brooch with a 250-carat sapphire, convex, covered with thousands of tiny faces - today it is one of the seven historic stones Diamond Fund. MI dusting, a famous Russian gemologist, tells of the miraculous statue of a single 100-carat sapphire, showing a female figure height of about 9 cm, on a round pedestal of the ruby. Sapphires have a great value in Europe - this clearly says even mention in the famous novel by Alexander Dumas' The Three Musketeers "sapphire ring Count de la rep who sold the Musketeers were able to fully equip for the campaign. Sapphires generally occupy a key place in the books, sometimes becoming self-sufficient heroes - that "The Gadfly" Ethel Voynich and "Sapphire Cross" Gilbert Chesterstona and "Shulamith" Kuprin, and "Blue Carbuncle" by A. Conan Doyle, which is easy to guess star-shaped sapphire ... Generally sapphire stone has become a true high literature - its writers and poets sing, compared with the blue twilight, blue ocean, moonlight and secret dreams, autumn sky. It is interesting to note that in fact sapphires are not only familiar blue hues, which they previously thought - from a light gray-blue to deep blue-black.
Today, the popularity gained so-called transparent fancy sapphires - yellow, orange, dark-pink, purple, light green shades. Especially beautiful fancy sapphires look in combination - and such jewelry is in the collections of almost all well-known jewelery houses such as Bvlgary, De Grisogono, Carrera y Carrera, Cartier and Dior. In addition, there are star-shaped sapphire (sapphire-asterix) - on their surface (usually faceted cabochon) as it slides a six-rayed star, visible in any rotation. Star-shaped sapphires are considered "Stone of Destiny" - the three beams that cross it, as lines of faith, hope and love. Sapphires cat's eye, or "dzhirazol" - iridescent and opaque, rarely found in nature. Sapphire - a colorless sapphire, which often is an alternative to diamond. Sapphire, alexandrite, or aleksandritopodobny Sapphire - a rare stone with a sapphire alexandrite effect, which changes color when the light changes.
Curative effects of sapphire multilaterally, and in ancient times it was considered a stone total protection that wearing a "shield" for the penetration of disease and the evil eye. As with all the blue stones, he has a favorable effect in diseases of the eye and useful to view at regular contemplation. It facilitates disease genital and urinary tract, bladder and kidneys. Sapphire has a general calming and cooling effect, restores sleep, relieves fevers. Can he come in handy for those who suffer from rheumatic back pain, skin disorders, seizure disorders, and diabetes. Stone is a powerful heart healer, in addition, he - a catalyst that enhances the effect of any drug, for which the most useful thing a gold ring with a sapphire insert. Interestingly, the sapphire in the Middle Ages was the "rock nuns" - it was worn to "cool" physical passion.
Sapphire energy associated with the knowledge of the world, friendship, humility and selfless love. Believe that the decoration with the stone protects its owner from the lies and betrayal, helps to penetrate into the essence of things, gives wisdom and composure - sapphires long were lawyers, judges, all of whose activities are related to the establishment of law and order. In addition, sapphire - a stone of power, as explicit, public and secret, over the minds and hearts of others. This mascot leader who wants to control the crowd. Love sapphire helps to achieve the desired goal, strengthens loyalty, develop a good and strong relationship. Sapphire brings a wealth seeking monetary wealth and material success.
Generally, sapphire - amulet of those it has a definite purpose - it helps to achieve it faster. At the same time, Sapphire - stone higher spirituality, opening the "third eye" to provoke contemplation, the mascot of poets, philosophers, scientists and priests. Note, however, that should be avoided with clear sapphire defects - cracks, clouds, is unclear - a "talisman" bring bad luck because his positive qualities will manifest exactly the opposite. Astrologically a sapphire shows almost all signs of the zodiac, because its effect is soft and unobtrusive, but is particularly useful Scorpio, Sagittarius and Aquarius.