Carnelian - a variety of chalcedony staple structure. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density - 2.6 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names of the stone and its variants: smazen, kadnos, carnelian, sarder, linkury.
Cornelian pebbles, so beloved by Voloshin, has since been considered a symbol of the true precious Silver Age. But before carnelian was rated luminaries of Russian literature - so, AS Pushkin had two carnelian ring. Their fate is confused - one on which was carved three winged Cupid, wore poet since childhood, but once lost his wife Mary Decembrist Rayevsky Volkonskaya carnelian with her was in Siberian exile, and then got in the Pushkin Museum in St. Petersburg. Second, given the Countess Vorontsova Pushkin wore to death and left his friend, the poet Zhukovsky Zhukovsky of decoration passed to his son, then - to the writer Turgenev, who bequeathed it to Leo Tolstoy and then send a "worthy Russian writer." Alas, Pauline Viardot not heed the last will and Turgenev ring came to the museum, and then during the Revolution disappeared ...
But calling only carnelian talisman art would be a huge error from the truth. After all, this stone, which appeared in the stories back in the Paleolithic era as primitive tools, has long become one of the "core" of gems, which were especially honored person. It was popular everywhere - for example, in ancient Egypt, carnelian considered frozen sunset, dedicated to the goddess Isis, and used to decorate the tombs of the Pharaohs and as a medicine, a lot of jewelry and vessels of carnelian was with Cleopatra. In ancient Rome carved carnelian gems - three-dimensional images of the gods, heroes and emperors, who were in the other pores most fashionable ornaments. In Tamerlane, who called himself "the conqueror of the universe", was cornelian buckle Razumovsky Hetman of Ukraine used cornelian seal carved in gold jewelry and belts with cornelian found in Scythian burial mounds. Carnelian valued in India, where it was believed that the stone contributes to internal development of man, and pregnant women should wear carnelian amulet to the unborn child awaited happiness.
Already in the IV. BC Carnelian is considered one of the most precious stones, along with pearls and diamonds - it was more expensive than gold, silver, sapphire and topaz. Carnelian is mentioned in the ancient Russian book on Gems - Izbornik Svyatoslav worth to mention that in Russia, carnelian was one of the most popular stones, they were decorated clothing, and harness, and the royal golden dishes, and rings, and necklaces, and earrings ... In Europe of the Middle Ages while carnelian was used very often - and also served as a talisman, and jewelry insertion, and the material for carved cups, statues, crosses, food, and pounded into a powder or apply to the sore spot - the healing potion. Not forgotten was carnelian, and later, when the transparent gems pushed several semi - carnelian still used for small inserts in the boxes, snuff boxes, mosaics for royal palaces and residences, were cut again entered the fashion cameos and intaglios, made vases and vessels. At the end of XIX century cornelian again began to make and print, and jewelry, and belts, and buttons, and small fancy items like candlesticks, vases, cigarette holders, ashtrays and cigarette cases so Faberge created a collection of figurines of animals from ornamental stone - jade, rock crystal, rose quartz, and of course, the orange-pink carnelian ...
May give the opinion that a carnelian - stone frivolous, the place to which - in a glass showcase rich living room or on a gold watch chain or bracelet. However, it has long been associated with carnelian spiritual principle in man. This gem is repeatedly mentioned in the Bible - it was laid the foundation of the New Jerusalem, sewn on the chest of the high priest, was decorated with a crown of Lucifer before his fall. In Russia, carnelian compared with the flame of faith - and they were decorated with crosses encrusted icon frames and the Gospels, made chalices and Panagia, embroidered miter and felony. Carnelian, called because of the color of blood and life stone was dedicated GreatMartyr Bartholomew, and sad coincidence is seen in the fact that on the day of the saint in his time in Catholic France was a bloody Massacre of St. Bartholomew. In this case, and the Muslims are extremely devoted Carnelian - believe that the right little hands Carnelian Signet wore the prophet Mohammed, the governor of Allah, and said that the hand wearing a carnelian, not scanty. Another famous Muslim Imam Jafar, said that by the will of Allah all the desires of who is carnelian, fulfilled. So devout Muslims abhor rings of carnelian, which cut the sacred sayings from the Koran - is considered sacred ornament mascot.
With all of this it should be noted that the Cornelian - surprisingly solid rock. Its hard to say as sapphire, topaz, jade, confused with other gemstones - it does not differ a great variety of colors, and can therefore be easily recognized and loved. Color varies from orange carnelian and white tint to red-brown, and orange cornelian formerly called "linkuriyami", orange-red, raw meat tsvetsta - "Carnelian" from the word "Carneys" (flesh), and red-brown - sarderami. Interestingly, the ancient idea that carnelian closely associated with the sun, they are the real foundation. The fact that the carnelian mined in alluvial deposits, located both on the surface and in the deeper layers of the soil, and the bright reddish carnelian receives only after be "outside", under prolonged exposure to the sun, as in the Crimean Bay . If the pebble "unlucky" that even in ancient times, he helped people, calcining in closed iron vessels to increase the density and brightness.
Therapeutic role carnelian huge - and this is one of the few gems, whose beneficial effect confirmed by official scientific sources. Even before the Great Patriotic War in Russia, it was found that the carnelian has a weak radioactivity, making it an effective tool for healing wounds, abscesses, tumors, and other disorders chirev skin. And in hard times this quality has been used in hospitals - drugs "real" almost was not, but was applied to the wounds heated pieces of carnelian, and after a while the inflammation subsided, ulcers and wounds quickly delayed, and another soldier was on the mend ...
Of course, the properties of carnelian "discovered" not in XX century - long before giving results radioactivity devices and any equipment at all cornelian treated all sorts of disease, and not only boils, septicemia, gangrene and skin damage, and dental pain, anemia, poor vision. Proved that carnelian powerful than a useful gem as amber - serdolikoterapiya even with in a separate branch of alternative medicine. This stone restores metabolism, strengthens the immune system, in the form of beads treat hyperthyroidism and relieves inflammation of the thyroid gland, cleanses the blood and lymph systems. It is believed that a significant improvement of need every day for 15 minutes to contemplate carnelian and orange carnelian put on eye during headache. With red carnelian treat and prevent impotence and infertility, working with nervous diseases, regulate monthly flushing in women. Yellow carnelian "responsible" for the stomach and intestines, it is useful for indigestion, constipation, and problems of other abdominal organs - kidneys and spleen. In addition, cornelian useful in bronchial asthma, malaria, rheumatism. The only "but" - carnelian not wear all the time, without taking day and night, especially for people suffering from cancer or tumors, because abnormally high "dose" of radiation Carnelian fraught.
Speaking of magic effects carnelian, the first thing is the recognized mascot of love, and especially his revered in this role it is in Russia. Men helped the darker stones, women - stones lighter and brighter believed that carnelian simultaneously attracts sympathy to the owner of the opposite sex, and helps to find and keep true love, and at the same time does not succumb to the charms of love potion, stores of dissipated and vicious life . Besides Cornelian - lovely family mascot, he re-ignites the passion between the couple, keeps the peace and quiet, the safeguard against infidelity. In affairs of the material plane carnelian also useful - it brings success, frustrating intrigues detractors, helps find strength to any litigation. For speakers and politicians carnelian irreplaceable - the stone makes it bears eloquent and charming, improves memory and insight. Product of carnelian is good to have people living in the country - it's charm, taking away from home disasters and lightning strikes. Generally Carnelian has long been considered an amulet that protects against any evil influence and unfriendly people. Carnelian is useful for people of art - it reveals the innate talents to help in finding a vocation is not surprising that he was so popular with poets and writers. Overall, this is one of those gems that are called stones absolute happiness - from all sides, he helps his master in all areas from health to personal well-being effective. Craps carnelian best in silver or nickel silver, although in ancient times it was framed in gold to wear around the neck or in the necklace, pendant or necklace, or on the middle finger in the ring or ring. Astrologically carnelian suitable for almost everyone, especially Gemini, Leo, Virgo and Libra.