Diamond - a mineral, crystalline carbon. 10.0 Hardness on the Mohs scale, density 3.5 g/cm3. Other names: fary, Adamas, eagle rock, royal stone adamant, diamond, king.
Diamond appeared in Europe in the 5-6 centuries BC, and his birthplace was India, where the legendary Golconda mines of gems mined a huge part of the time. Granite stones did not know how, and either treated with a cabochon, or carefully cut off all the "extra" along natural faces, getting irregular crystal. That's why the ancient diamonds usually stood at cost rubies, emeralds and pearls - because only a skillful cut to really reveal their iridescent sheen. But that did not stop the Indian rulers hoard diamonds along with other precious stones decorate their clothing, weapons, utensils and even furniture. Hindus even shared diamonds, like ourselves, the four castes - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, completely giving the rock spirit.
At the same time the love of diamonds gets to Rome - for example, Julius Caesar thought this stone its mascot. Pliny says that thanks to diamond slave could gain freedom - for this it was necessary to split the stone, pre soak it for "softness" in fresh goat's blood. A Greek playwrights Aeschylus and Gepsoid poetically praised hardness of diamond, saying of it could be done helmet Hercules or chain Prometheus.
But the truly addicted Europeans to the diamond in the middle of the last millennium, when it was finally invented a way to cut diamonds. Derived minerals were called diamonds, and since then processed diamonds firmly taken place on their heads and fingers Western monarchs. From the XV century AD difficult to find a single crown jewels or decoration, do not include diamonds - they framed sapphires, rubies, emeralds or chrysolite, they added to the enamel inserts or assemble a large diamond with a few small, often of different colors. Diamonds shone on the scepter and orb, the staffs of cardinals and bishops, the state orders and medals. First, they could carry just the first of a person, and only gradually diamond "was the people," but he never dropped in price enough to become accessible to all. From the first to the last pebble diamond - is the subject of luxury, a favorite toy of kings and emperors.
There is one more feature of diamonds and diamond - large and valuable copies have their own names. Getting their rocks have since become as diamonds began wearing women - fashion they introduced mistress of King Charles VII of France Agnes Sorel, and until that time diamonds were exclusively male prerogative. Minerals ladies hit the spot: it from the other transparent stones are distinguished by the ability to break down the incoming light into all the colors of the spectrum, so that the polished face flash and play with bright colors. Diamonds "clean water" should "dissolve" and become invisible by omitting them in water. Interestingly, the luminescence of a diamond appears under the influence of any visible light source - this related to the fact that the stones that the "light" and spark even under sunlight.
But, of course, not all diamonds are colorless - and the color does not make them any less valuable. After all fancy diamonds - ie stones, naturally colored in yellow, pink, red, purple, blue, green, black, cognac - are extremely rare and therefore incredibly expensive. Many colored diamonds were among the best in the world instances - such as the "Dresden Green" color Antonovsky apples or infamous resembling a sapphire "Hope", bearing the legend misfortune to all who owns it. The blood-red diamond was a favorite of the Russian emperor Paul I, and the yellow-brown "Golden Jubilee", weighing 545 carats is now considered the largest in the world.
Significant differences from the other diamonds and gems lie in the physical qualities. First, it is the only gemstone that consists of one element - the "thing in itself", which is a sibling of an ordinary coal. Further, the hardness of a diamond is the top of the table Mohs, surpassing any existing in the world of rock. It can only handle ... a diamond - crushed stone, deposited on a metal tool. He does not scratch, but it is rather fragile - if hit it with a heavy hammer, the stone may break.
Diamond mines have long been the subject of desire for entrepreneurs - which owns large deposit of diamonds has not only the stones but also coming with authority and respect. India retains first place in jewelry until the XVIII century, when the mines were opened in Brazil. And with the XIX century became known rich deposits in Africa, which still supply the world with great stones. In the last century, there was one place on the map of the Earth, where you can find diamonds - it Yakutia, gradually build up "diamond" momentum.
Since ancient times, the stone was miraculous assistant, who allegedly cured almost all ailments at once. They believed that the diamond makes the poison and senile dementia, depression, and depression, ulcers, epilepsy and madness. Today litoterapevty recommend it to improve the functioning of the blood vessels of the brain, nervous disorders? phobias, painful dependence on nicotine, alcohol and drugs. In addition, diamond reduces temperature and heat, is useful in pneumonia and bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, heart failure. Stones useful to wear a green shade for easy pregnancy and successful birth, they promote fertility and cure women's diseases. Skin inflammations such as eczema, itching, irritation, and also subject to the diamond - and it affects the skin condition in general, slowing down the process of aging.
Energy diamond - the strongest of all gems. However, it is selective, and helps people especially strong, proud, confident, eager for glory, honor, power and high position. Those who wish to live a life of quiet and in nothing interfering, soft and timid diamond will not work. Tuned to its owner it is quite a long time - for example, There is a persistent belief that the purchased own stone starts to "work" only seven years, so it is preferable to receive a gift diamonds or inherited. Another important point - the stone is not recommended for persons under the age of 30 years. It preserves and multiplies wealth brings fame and recognition, strengthens courage and self-confidence. By the way, the swindlers and speculators do not like diamonds and can thus harm the owners. And if the person he "liked", the diamond will protect him from any harm, will truly invincible, will develop the mind and intellect. Woman a diamond can help clear the problem and increase sexual libido.
Best to wear diamonds on the left hand or on the neck, so that the stone is a part of their contact with the skin. Greatest strength they gain in gold. Absolutely essential diamond Aries (except black), is very useful to Leo, the other signs of the zodiac it can also be worn in compliance with other conditions described above.