Jade - mineral of the tremolite-actinolite isomorphous series of the amphibole group, calcium silicate, magnesium and iron. Conditionally divided into tremolite-nephrite (lighter) and actinolite-Jade (green shades). The hardness of 6.0-6.5 on the Mohs scale, density 3.0 g/cm3, silky shine, wax. Other names of the mineral and its variants: a kidney stone, Canadian jade, Diana Yu, Poonam, hash, jasper.
Jade - one of the most revered in the East, the stones, and had possession of the other local kings expensive than some cities. Which just did not go about it - worker, believed that it was taken from him the throne of the Buddha in the celestial palace, and that this gem will grant immortality and ensures rebirth after death. So often, pieces of jade were put in the mouth of the deceased - to do so, for example, in Mexico, in addition Maya adorned graves of famous dead jade mosaic on the fingers wore jade rings, put on your face mask carved from jade - as well as in Egypt to make a mask of gold. But the fact is that in South America, jade was valued higher than useless and a soft yellow metal - known saying Montezuma attsekov leader who, after meeting with the conquistador Cortes noted with surprise: "They are only interested in gold - they are not aware of nephritis »True or not - but in modern Mexico is really in a great course were jade, gem and this applies even to make tools - knives, adzes, scrapers, which were finished with ... ruby crystals! Jade tools were in use at the dawn of civilization, and in Australia, New Zealand, Asia - for example, the Indians Maori jade amulets passed by inheritance, as the highest value, and searched using the wizard rock, rather than relying on their own. In Turkey, jade was regarded as the stone of victory, and out of the handle and do inlays for military weapons - knives, swords, axes, and the rings and belt buckles that could be only the wealthiest men. Jade Tiger, framed in gold, was a seal for another conqueror of ancient 'Great and fearless "Genghis Khan and the Mongol warriors who conquered Russia on a long three centuries, will certainly bring with them an amulet of jade. Jade pendant on a legend was with Alexander the Great, and when he lost it, leaving the Euphrates while swimming, success is no longer accompanied him.
However, the greatest love of jade flourished in ancient China, for the Great Wall - where jade first used as an artistic material for jewelry, ceremonial vases and bowls of wine and sacrificial blood, the insignia of the emperor and his officials - the supreme ruler of China, for example even in the VI. BC wore a miter covered jade plates, and the same belt. Jade was a sacred stone Ruler of heaven, symbolizing perfection, strength, courage, harmony, spiritual purity and a host of other virtues. The most important documents are held together jade seal, jade "coins" is valued equally to the present, the jade engraved passports for imperial messengers. When used semiprecious worship Buddha figurines and dishes from light blue jade, and the first form of the character "king" was the symbol strings of jade beads and includes such characters in the original form of the character "precious." Jade did and household goods - lamp shades for lamps, bowls, sculpture, the bed on which the rest of the Imperial family, and even pillows. Of thin layers made of jade from the time of Confucius special musical instrument - similar xylophone, for which the sound of wooden sticks was thought that the music of the gods, and Confucius himself, tired of their righteous works, and loved to entertain themselves "jade chime" and reached in this art unprecedented heights. Not to speak of, and burials, where jade - as simple blocks, and finely dressed bowls, earrings, rings, amulets - find hundreds.
In the last few centuries, jade has become popular in Europe and America - for example, Queen Victoria was a jade scepter-like thing owned and Nicholas II. At the beginning of XIX century jade found in Siberia, making this stone has become a popular material for vases, table tops, Florentine mosaic panels. Faberge nephrite often used for various decorative items - bowls, ashtrays, cigarette holders, paper knives - which were intended for members of the supreme power in Russia. Jade and participated in the creation of the famous Faberge Easter eggs - from it sometimes grinds whole body, sometimes - the leaves of flowers and trees, the fine detail of "surprises." Now Jade - a rare and valuable gem used to make jewelry, pendants, amulets, Buddhist symbols, small sculptures and art objects.
The popular belief that jade - definitely dark green stone, is fundamentally wrong. In fact, the many varieties of jade - it happens, and orange-red, and black, and gray, and violet, and "honey" - yellow-brown. In China and Mongolia have always loved most of all white jade, and that its variant that has a smooth opaque color below prized translucent white and gray stone, and even fewer - jade ivory. Blue Jade - the most rare and not included yet in vogue, but differs in beautiful dark blue hue - was recently called Diana. A green jade, which has pleased the Europeans, too, is different: the emerald-like green apple, dark green with black spots, white and green, poetically called "moss, makes his way through the snow ..." Some are very similar to jadeite jade - before their do not share, assuming the same stone but actually jade and jadeite not even occur together in the fields. Theoretically, both of them - silica compound, but jade - sodium silicate and aluminum silicate, jade is calcium, magnesium and iron. Interesting properties of jade - its strength and toughness: the stone can not be scratched steel and very hard to beat, and the well-known story tells how once tried to split a block of jade in the German plant steam hammer: in the end split the anvil, jade was also unharmed. Similarly insensitive to acids jade and heat decorations he did not require special care and can tolerate quite negligent treatment. Because the production of jade in the mountains of the ancient walked with great difficulty, because the stone did not give the usual tools, extract it chose in the rivers in the form of shingles. And its current name, which means in translation "lumbar stone" gem found in the colonization of America, when the Spaniards, who suffered from renal colic after nights in the open air, collected jade stones, heated and have applied them to the back, like a hot water bottle was that jade retains heat better than any other stone.
About medical abilities jade written hundreds of treatises, books and articles - they really can not be counted. In China, it was considered a panacea for all diseases and for the prevention of wear and complete defense. In the Middle Ages jade ground into a powder and ingested as a medicine. Toothache and heartache, bloating, irregular, differential pressure, depression, stress, nerve disease, problems with blood circulation and bone marrow - everything is subject jade amulet from this gem on your stomach makes deliveries for pregnant women and heals ulcers and stomach cancer. Sometimes a sale can be seen tselnonefritovuyu dishes - it is very useful to harmonize the physical condition, cell regeneration and rejuvenation of the body. Jade hand massagers - another popular item needed to get rid of wrinkles, acne, defects and inflammation of the skin, improves complexion should use them after preliminary heating and warm water, as its properties Jade are the best in hot form. Suffering from kidney stones and bladder, or other diseases of these organs, shows the various methods of influence jade - from direct massage to the waist or massage cushions, which are sewn round stone plaque in contact with the affected area of the body while the person goes in the car or watching TV . The latest addition - covers for car seats with jade circles on the surface, which at the same time improve the condition of the spine and the cardiovascular system. A similar pillow for sleeping relieve insomnia, nightmares and fears. However, in the same act and jade jewelry - necklaces, pendants, rings, earrings.
In China, this stone say: "A man feeds the jade, jade nourishes man." Indeed, it helps to sustain any difficulties, feeding his master forces and energy, and is therefore very useful for the spiritually weak who love to complain about the lives of people who are hard to cope with the problems. Hard work, focus, stamina, love for their work - that is what "brings up" jade acquired its man. He awakens desire for beneficial changes to overcome the stalemate and helps to expand the boundaries of consciousness and look at things from an unexpected quarter. At the same time, Jade - a talisman for those who dream of stability and continuous reliable source of income involved manual, physical labor: workers, construction workers and farmers. Suitable jade and military - this amulet, especially of white jade, protects against injury, gives courage and leads to victory. Woman handy ring with jade inlay, which will protect her family fortune and prolong youth and beauty, and the jade figurine will facilitate rapid replenishment of the family. However, this is only true for those who are already married - otherwise jade will not give you to get new fans, because this gem protects from unnecessary contact with people who focus on making your own inner world. By the way, like many of the strong energy stones, jade can change the color of the hand of the owner - it gets dark, if you persist in their mistakes, not wanting to improve. Astrologically nephritis not contraindicated in anyone, but will bring the greatest benefit to Gemini, Cancer, Pisces, Capricorn, Virgo In general it can be distributed according to the color - blue and black varieties for signs of water, green - for an earth sign, white and yellow - for Air and Red - for the Fire.