Amazonite - mineral of the feldspar group, a variety of microcline. The hardness of 5.0-5.5 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5-2.6 g/cm3, shiny glass. Other names - Amazon stone, Amazon spar, Colorado jade.
In fact, it is not known whether amazonite thus mascot ancient Amazons. However, in the excavation of ancient burial mounds from the Urals to the Don, where according to legend lived women warriors often find dark with time amazonite jewelry. And some scientists believe that the roots of the name of the stone are here - because no real connection with the river Amazon in South America, whose name allegedly called amazonite, does not exist, as there are no deposits of amazonite directly in the Amazon, so that the origins of this name is not very clear. The American Indians living in this area, often wear amulets with amazonite! Find out the true history of this stone archaeologists have yet to be - but now we know that amazonite was one of the favorite stone
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Amethyst - purple variety of transparent or translucent quartz. Hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.5-2.8 g/cm3, shiny glass, light purple plehroizm, weak brown luminescence. Other names: Theotokion stone, dumpling, bishop's stone.
Scientists believe that the name "amethyst" comes from the Greek word «amethystos», which means "neopyanenny", "tough to intoxication." This stone is actually long been considered the best amulet against harmful for the body habits, and even in ancient times, amethyst rings worn before meal to keep the mind clear and uncomplicated. In this case, amethyst was the power not only to alcohol, but also to any outside influence - in the first Slavic Izbornik been said that amethyst "thoughts dashing removes, does not allow the memory othoditi" and the great doctor of the East Al-Biruni wrote that amethyst thrown into a bowl of water, heals many diseases, and even protect from poisoning.
Agate - variously zonal variety of chalcedony with a pronounced striped and textured. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density 2.6 g/cm3. Layered structure, alternate transparent, translucent and opaque wavy stripes of different colors.
Agate - one of the first gems that became known to man. A role in this was played by its prevalence: agates are quite common and are mined in various parts of the world, from Russia to Australia. Agates are not always hidden under the ground: a lot of surface placers, for example, one can still find agates in the Crimea. Thus large agate - a rarity: one of the largest in the history of the agate craft a dish with a diameter of 75 cm, made in Trier in the IV. BC and is now stored in the Museum of Art History in Vienna. A first reliable historical information about agates come to us from the ancient world - the rock in the second millennium BC, was the most popular material for jewelry, cameos, intaglios, interior d
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Adularia, and moonstone - a kind of potassium feldspar. 6,0-6,6 hardness on the Mohs scale, density of 2.6 g/cm3, shiny silky glass. Another name-pearl spar, pearl spar, orthoclase, fisheye.
The Moonstone, there are many legends. They say, for example, that on the surface appears white spot, growing to the extent that it increases the glow of the moon to full moon. The sages said that the new moon grows cold stone and poured like moonlight, beginning to shine much brighter, and the decrease of the lunar disk luster fades until the next new moon. How can a piece of rock so strongly reflect the course of the lunar month - is unknown so far, but in India adularia was a sacred stone that brings happiness. For an unusual iridescent white color with bluish or yellowish tint was called "spit Moon" or "lunar foam" - believed that these stones are the frozen tears of the moon goddess, and it has the iridescence like having within itself its own source of radiance,
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Aventurine - rock, a kind of fine-grained quartz. The hardness of 6.0-7.0 on the Mohs scale, 2-2.6 g/cm3 density, luster glass. Other names: zlatoiskr, Taganay, Iskra-ists, Belorechye, jade Indian, sandastros, fuchsia.
The very appearance of aventurine conjures up thoughts of the supernatural fire: in the depths of translucent stone, which is usually red or yellow color, and very rarely green or blue, posverkivayut tiny multicolored sparks, whose mysterious shimmer seems too perfect to be natural effect. Aventurine has been known since ancient times - it was known in Egypt and in ancient India, where it is considered a talisman magicians and snake charmers. Indian traders and aventurine brought to Europe in the Middle Ages, where he became the material for jewelry and crafts. Aventurine deposit were found in the Urals, and then the stone became popular among stonecutters: the most
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Among blue and blue sodalite stones stands apart - a rare and mysterious gemstone. Sodalite dark history - Europe sodalite first became known in the last few centuries, and was first described in the literature of the stone was in 1811 no Pliny, Herodotus of sodalite or do not mention it, and not in the medieval "lapidary" - and this in spite of that it was known to the ancient Incas in South America, which he faced the walls and floors of houses cut out of his jewelry and sculpture, were removed from the sodalite mineral powder blue paint ultramarine. For some reason, the Spanish conquerors passed sodalite - a stone that went only good, because otherwise the already not great its natural resources to date at all would be depleted. Now sodalite mined in areas of volcanic rocks, such as on the Kola Peninsula, in Russia, in the area of Mount Vesuvius in Italy, and in the mountains in Portugal, Germany, Romania, India, Norway, Canada, USA, Brazil.
Carnelian - a variety of chalcedony staple structure. The hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs scale, density - 2.6 g/cm3, the brilliance of glass. Other names of the stone and its variants: smazen, kadnos, carnelian, sarder, linkury.
Cornelian pebbles, so beloved by Voloshin, has since been considered a symbol of the true precious Silver Age. But before carnelian was rated luminaries of Russian literature - so, AS Pushkin had two carnelian ring. Their fate is confused - one on which was carved three winged Cupid, wore poet since childhood, but once lost his wife Mary Decembrist Rayevsky Volkonskaya carnelian with her was in Siberian exile, and then got in the Pushkin Museum in St. Petersburg. Second, given the Countess Vorontsova Pushkin wore to death and left his friend, the poet Zhukovsky Zhukovsky of decoration passed to his son, then - to the writer Turgenev, who bequeathed it to Leo Tolstoy and then send a "worthy Russian writer." Alas, Pauline Viardot no
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